Raven

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License Awards

In 2005, BRP awarded a small number of free licenses for Raven to researchers in the field of animal bioacoustics. These awards were intended to make Raven available to investigators for whom the standard $400 license fee would have been prohibitive, such as researchers in developing countries or graduate students without access to large research grants. Awards were intended for basic research on the functions, mechanisms, development, or evolution of animal acoustic communication systems, or for conservation-oriented applied research. Award decisions were made by a committee of BRP scientists and software developers on the basis of scientific merit and financial need.

After the awards were granted, we introduced Raven student subscription to make Raven more affordable to students. We are not likely to award additional free licenses but instead updated our prices in 2006 to include:

Listed below are the award recipients for 2005, along with descriptions of their research projects.

 

Winners of standard Raven licenses

 

Yi-men Araya Ajoy, Costa Rica

I am working with the Ocellated Antbird (Phaenostictus mcleannani: Thamnophilidae), is a Neotropical understory antbird that forms extended patrilineal families (clans) composed of several mated pairs that tolerate each other. I want to know if each family has his own song dialect and I will use Raven to analyse the spectrograms

Giannina Cadena–Lopez, Colombia

Ground-antbirds are tropical secretive birds of the formicariidae family. I’m working to determine the distribution, abundance and territory size of the ground-antbirds in a cloud forest on the west slope of the Central Andes of Colombia to characterize the conservation status and vulnerability of them in this area. In addition I want to confirm the occurrence of probable species. I’m using Raven 1.2 to create sonograms to find diagnosable characters for each species, also to identify unknown vocalizations of some species and for field play back reproductions to see territoriality response of the Antpittas.

Mario Cohn-Haft, Brazil

My graduate students and I study geographic variation, biogeography, species limits, and bioacoustics of Amazonian birds. Among other projects, we are surveying bird diversity and tape recording bird vocalizations throughout the Brazilian Amazon. Associated with INPA's Bird Collection, of which I am the Curator, we are building a sound archive of hundreds of hours of recordings that we hope to make accessible on-line within the next two years. We have recently begun research on song learning in Amazonian birds, including hand-rearing of sub-oscine bird species, which are believed to have genetically hard-wired songs.

Gabriel J. Colorado Z. , Colombia

Our studies involve, among other topics, to gather information available on bird sound records of several years of amateur and professional field work from different locations in tropical and subtropical forests of Colombia, seeking to create a sonogram library. In the near future, this information will aid to compare and analyzed bird songs, particularly those produced by difficult-to-separate groups, such as Antbirds, Flycatchers and Hummingbirds. The Raven sound analysis software will also help to carry out studies on inter-Andean differences in vocalizations by species of interest, and will be an exceptional tool in teaching basic aspects of sound analysis to undergraduate students.

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Gabriel Francescoli, Uruguay

My research is centered on signal characterization, design and evolution in the subterranean rodents of the genus Ctenomys, and also in a comparative work with the available information for other subterranean rodents in the world. Raven will be used as a tool to describe and compare signals, and to generate the spectrogram graphic files to be used in papers and congress presentations.

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Fernando González García , Mexico

Raven will be a very important tool in my training courses in technical of recording and analysis of bird sounds, which I offer every year in a mesoamerica country. Likewise, I will make use of the software in my next investigations on the vocal structure of Sumichrast´s Wren and of the Horned Guan in Mexico.

M. Isabel Gomez, Bolivia

My research deals with the conservation of the threatened bird species in the Andes, such as the critically endangered Royal Cinclodes (Cinclodes aricomae) and the endangered Ash-breasted Tit-Tyrant (Anairetes alpinus). These species are found only in Polylepis woodlands in the high Andes between 3,900 and 4,200 m and are endemics to southern Peru and northern Bolivia. The both species were known only in two localities in Bolivia in 2001. For last three years, we used the Geographic Information System to predict the distribution of Polylepis pepei in the Cordillera Real, northern Bolivia, and then we carried out intensive searches for Ash-breasted Tit-Tyrants and Royal Cinclodes in these woodlands using playback. We found 17 new populations of Tit-Tyrants and 3 new populations of Cinclodes. These woodlands are severely fragmented, and we do not know the viability of these populations. In order to assess the viability of these highly endangered species and formulate adequate conservation strategy, we need to know the basic biology of the species; such as territory size, dispersal patterns, breeding biology, foraging behavior, vocalization, and social behavior.

The objectives of our project are to investigate basic biology of these highly threatened bird species and to motivate local communities for conservation of the woodlands and its avifauna. The study will be divided to: (1) the breeding biology such as breeding season, nesting behavior, breeding success of the Ash-breasted Tit-Tyrant and Royal Cinclodes, though intensive searches for nest and observation of breeding behavior, (2) the territory size and habitat requirements by territory mapping of marked individuals, (3) the vocal repertoire and vocal variation among individuals, sexes, and populations, (4) foraging behavior and resource use by video-recording of color-marked individuals, and (5) conservation activities such as workshops, environmental education, reforestation, with the collaboration to local communities.

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Paul Gutierrez-C. and Mauricio Rivera-C., Colombia

In a recent study of anuran diversity in a unexplored locality of the northern Central Cordillera of Colombia (Paul Gutiérrez-C., unpublished data), two frog species of the genus Hyla and another species of the genus Centrolene were discovered, which local taxonomists concur are new species to science needing formal description. Because just morphometric data recorded from these specimens are not sufficient to permit their descriptions as new species, due to their considerable morphological similarity to other closely-related species, it will be necessary to include analyses of call characteristics in our revisions.

This study is important for two reasons. First, it will increase the known fauna of anurans for Colombia by three species, a significant addition despite the fact that this country already ranks second globally in terms of frog diversity. Second, it will expand our knowledge of a herpetologically poorly studied region of Colombia (Acosta-Galvis 2000) that currently faces conservation problems due to the threats of intensive human clearing or alteration of forest habitats.

We recognize the potential that Raven offers to analyze and to interpret acoustic signals. Therefore, the use of this software is fundamental for the detailed analysis of the frog calls registered in field, and thus, to obtain one better resolution of the data that will allow to improve the description of these new species. At future, the software not only will be used for description of new species, but also in other ecological studies using frog calls. In this way, this software will be permits to Grupo Herpetológico de Antioquia to star a new research topic in order to improve the knowledge of anuran fauna.

Kim Howell and Charles Msuya, Tanzania

We are in the process of describing a new species of anuran from the insular fauna of Zanzibar. We have funded fieldwork ourselves (trip to observe the species in the wild, collect specimens, and make recordings of vocalizations) and we now wish to more formally describe and analyze its vocalizations.

KMH was one of the discoverers of the Kihansi Spray toad, Nectophrynoides asperginus, which now is almost extinct in the wild, and together we have continued to monitor its dramatic reduction in numbers in the wild. Recordings of the vocalizations of this species are deposited with the Cornell Library of Natural Sounds. He and CAM have been colleagues in the Dept. of Zoology & Marine Biology, University of Dar es Salaam since 1971 and have been involved in the discovery and description of several new anuran taxa. However, we have not been able to provide adequate and detailed descriptions of the vocalizations. If selected, we would install Raven on a computer in the Department’s Biodiversity Database, which currently has more than 15,000 records on vertebrate specimens. Raven would thus be made available to the increasing number of Tanzanians with an interest in vocalizations of birds and frogs, and form an institutional resource to be used by many.

We would like to see this as the first step in a long term effort to build up a database of anuran calls which would be available for students and researchers in Tanzania (and elsewhere in the East African Region ) to use in conservation efforts.

Gladys Reyes Macedo, Mexico

INVESTIGATION AND CONSERVATION OF THE GREEN MACAW IN THE TEHUACAN-CUICATLAN BIOSPHERE RESERVE

We are studying the reproductive parameters, population size and vocal communication in one of the largest populations of the Greem Macaw (Ara militaris) in Mexico. This population is located in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve, managed by the local communities in collaboration with the Federal ecology authorities. Knowledge about the vocal communication in this species, compared to other parrots, is very scarce. We hope that our results will provide the tools to distinguish between age/classes by vocalization and contribute to a better understanding of its reproductive parameters. From these, we will establish guidelines for the proper protection of this important population.

Angela Medina and Esquisa Omaña , Venezuela

We wil use Raven to digitize the recordings of natural bird calls and broadcast anuran calls. We will describe these calls in the time and spectral domains by measuring specific traits such as call duration, peak time, amplitude modulation, call shape (obtained by diving peak time by call length), intercall interval, number of harmonics (if present), initial and final frequency of the entire call or of the dominant harmonic, frequency modulation and dominant frequency of the entire call. With these variables we will calculate similarity indexes between calls and perform statistical analisis (PCA, ANOVA, Regression).

Andrea Montero-Cordero, Costa Rica

Potential effect of whale-watching tours and other recreational activities on dolphins at Bahía Drake, Costa Rica: A case for the spotted dolphin Stenella attenuata (Cetacea: Delphinidae)

The Osa Conservation Area (south of Costa Rica) estimated a total of 88 lodging businesses, from which 48 (55%) are localized along the coast, and own at least one vessel for ecotourism services. Special concerns are raised by the sounds of vessels used to approach cetaceans for science and tourism, since they can cause animals to avoid certain areas, effectively reducing or degrading their habitat. In this project, behavioural observation will be complemented with in situ spotted dolphins' vocalization recordings and boat engines' sound, through a C54xR (0.020-60 & 100-250 kHz) hydrophone and a Sony TCD-D7 DAT recorder, (lend by Cascadia Research Collective). Vocalization rates will be processed with help of RAVEN© acoustic analysis software. Whistles' rates will be determined in order to compare rates in presence of one and more boats.

Carmen Milena Paulo Morelo, Colombia

I will use Raven in my research for visualization, measurement and analysis of vocal communication in wild cotton top tamarins, an small primate endangered, endemic of Colombia South America. I will study the structure and function of vocal repertoire of this primate. This research will be usefull in reintroduction and conservations programs.

Cristiano Leite Parente, Brazil

Behavior response of cetaceans to seismic survey air-gun emissions

The study of the behavior response of cetaceans to seismic surveys still little known and involves the bioacoustics procedures. This research is majoring to identify alterations in the vocal repertoire of small cetaceans during seismic surveys and generate a bioacoustics' data base of cetaceans in the continental shelf of Brazil. Recorded seismic pulses and cetaceans vocalizations will be sampled, and analyzed before, during, and post-survey to identify alterations of the vocalic behaviour of cetaceans. All of this analyzes will be done with the software Raven.

Alexandre Paro, Brazil

Sotalia guianensis, is a small coastal cetacean species that is considered "Data Deficient" by the IUCN. Its strictly coastal habitats suffer a great human pressure, posing threat to its conservation. Using acoustic techniques our research will characterize the vocal repertoire and access possible disturbance caused by boats on the dolphins' vocal behavior, specially the dolphin-watching boats common in the area.

Patricio Ramírez-Llorens, Argentina

I am conducting a study on the ontogeny of vocal communication in brown capuchin monkeys in a subtropical rain-forest in Iguazú National Park, Argentina. My study attempts to determine if the interpretation of infant calls by adults improves with age, and if so whether the responses of adults to infant calls increase when their calls reach the structure typical of the species or when the infants begin to use the calls in their proper context. Raven sound analysis software will be used to digitalize recordings obtained from infants at different ages and to analyze them spectrographically. I will also perform playbacks of food associated calls from infants of distinct ages to adult monkeys and Raven will be necessary to prepare the sound stimuli for playbacks.

Esteban Bermúdez Rodríguez, Costa Rica

My current research is part of a long term monitoring project started in 2002 on the abundance and distribution of birds in the mid elevation forests of Braulio Carrillo National Park, on the northeast Caribbean slope of Costa Rica.

The main objective of the project is to examine the effects on the bird populations of a major national road (Route 32) that crosses the park, specifically the susceptibility of certain species to disturbance effect of traffic noise.

The effects of the road on specific bird species at the site will be measured, as reflected in the decline in abundance with decreasing distance to the road edge, propposing the masking effect of traffic noise on bird sound communication as one of the major factors affecting the performance of bird species in the study area.

The bird songs will be characterized according to its principal acoustical properties (1. Frequency range (bandwidth), 2. Maximum frequency, 3. Minimum frequency, and 4. Peak frequency) to establish its susceptibility to the masking effect of traffic noise. Raven 1.2 will be used to analyze these acoustical properties and to characterize the song structure of the bird species sound signals on the study area.

Rodrigo W. Soria Auza and Melvin Gastañaga, Bolivia

Geographical song Comparison Between Bolivian and Peruvian Southern Helmeted Curassow populations (Vulnerable of extinction; IUCN 2004). Are they two different species?

Southern Helmeted Curassow is a globally threatened bird species that lives in humid lower montane forest along the eastern Andean slopes in Bolivia and Peru (Stattersfield et al 1998). Current knowledge of the species range is limited because of shortage of studies about its biology. In Bolivia it’s known from only one population in Carrasco and Amboró National Parks (Cox et al. 1997, Herzog 1998, MacLeod & Maccormick 2000, Soria et al. in prep.). In Peru there is also a single isolated population in Cerros del Sira (BirdLife International 2004), as a possible observation in Cerros del Tavara is now known to be a mistake (Hennessey In Press). BirdLife International (2004) quotes to foothills of Cordillera de Cocapata as a potential site for this species, however, recent biological expeditions to this area, and interviews of local indigenous people shows that Southern Helmeted Curassow is unknown there. Therefore, Bolivian and Peruvian populations are isolated by 1200 km (c.a.).

These two populations have showed morphological differences. E.g. The Bolivian population (Pauxi unicornis unicornis) has a taller and more upright horn, and a larger white band at the point of their tail feathers than the Peruvian population (Pauxi unicornis koepkeae). Additionally, M. Gastañaga reported in March 2004 that the Peruvian population songs differed from the Bolivian one, however, we couldn’t verify this accurately using the appropriate tool of analysis. Taking into account that song is an important characteristic to establish species limits in birds, the conservation status of these two populations (species?) would be more critical than their actual status (Vulnerable of extinction according to IUCN). Especially the Peruvian population, which is more rare and difficult to study than the Bolivian one (e.g. M. Gastañaga recorded this species using a video-camera after c.a. 34 years of no reliable record for Peru). In this light we propose to compare songs between Bolivian and Peruvian Populations of Southern Helmeted Curassow to clarify their taxonomic and conservation status. This will have important implications in the conservation priorities of globally threatened species.

Luís Fábio Silveira, Brazil

We are a newly formed Ornithology Laboratory at the State University of São Paulo, in São Paulo, Brazil (USP). I am a Zoology teacher, having recently taken office at its Zoology Department. Home Page: http://www.ib.usp.br/~lfsilveira/.

Specialist on Brazilian birds, I am also the Curator of the Bird Section at the Zoology Museum (Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo - MZUSP), the largest bird collection in South America. For the past few months we have been organizing and putting together a database of vocalizations that were recorded in the last few years by us and other researchers here at the University. This input is starting our library of birds, amphibians and mammals voices, and I have some students currently working on alpha taxonomy of Brazilian birds, which depends more and more on a well conducted sound analysis, as demonstrated by several studies performed by researchers such as Islers and Bret Whitney.

Raven, built to a Windows PC platform, will be essential for us in describing some new taxa and for the studies on alpha taxonomy of Brazilian birds. We, at this moment, are describing a new species of Stymphalornis (Marsh Antwren), Heliobletus (Treehunter), Procnias (Bellbird), and four new species of Tapaculos (Scytalopus), and all these taxa, to be described, need a careful analysis of their vocalizations. Additionally, we have been working over our acoustic records in order to make them available and useful for us, our students and for the whole ornithological community.

L. Felipe Toledo and Célio F. B. Haddad, Brazil

One of the most surprising defensive behavior of anurans is the distress call, a vocalization emitted by several species when threatened or subjugated by potential predators. Most of these calls are not described and some of those that have been described were misinterpreted. So, we hope to record a large number of distress calls in the field, basically from species occurring in the Atlantic rain forest of southeastern Brazil, and analyze them with the Raven 1.2 for windows. After that, we will map the results over phylogenetic trees, in order to infer about the evolution of this defensive strategy and evaluate which of the bioacoustics parameters have been changing between different species, genera, or families. This study will be part of Luís Felipe Toledo PhD thesis.

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Irene Zager Fernández, Venezuela

We are studying the evolution of contact calls in the brown-throated parakeet subspecies group (Aratinga pertinax sspp.), which includes five insular endemics and nine subspecies in the northern South America mainland. Preliminary observations suggest markedly greater variability in the contact calls of island than mainland populations. Our plan is to investigate the robustness of this pattern, and then to determine whether this relaxation in call specificity occurred independently in each island colonization, or whether it is simply the result of a single chance event within one lineage, which subsequently colonized all islands. In order to do this, we will use Raven to contrast patterns in call structure with a mitochondrial molecular phylogeny of the group, which is currently under construction.

 

Winners of one-year Raven licenses

 

Alivdon Asis, Phillipines

The spatial distribution of Philippine endemic Rufous Hornbill Buceros hydrocorax hydrocorax will be studied using Raven Bio-acoustic Analysis Software in two different forest fragments. This study is designed to analyze, differentiate and document the bird population between the natural and anthropogenic forest areas in the ornithologically unknown Abasig-Matogdon-Mananap Natural Biotic Area, Mount Labo, Camarines Norte, Luzon Island, Philippines. Sampling sites will be identified and birds' calls are recorded in each area.

Sandrine Dam, Italy

I'm an undergraduate student from "La Sapienza" University in Rome (italy), handling a research project supervised by Dr. Thomas Geissmann ( University of Zurich-Irchel (Switzerland); see website:www.gibbons.de) about Bunopithecus hoolock singing duetts. The study is carried on in captivity due to the hard conditions to get in touch with this specie in the wild at present time in China. The sound quality is also important for the study of the pair vocal interactions, which are those that I must check out. Phylogeny purpose is backward the research questions, as the vocalisations are the way of getting out of the trouble about their position in the family tree.

Marcela Fernandez, USA

My study proposes to determine if reproduction, particularly mate attraction, is the most likely function of sonic-ultrasonic calling in a Neotropical rodent, Scotinomys teguina (Muridae). I will use Raven software to visualize, edit and analyze the spectral features of the calls. I will employ the pre-recorded calls in play back experiments to examine female preference for vocalizations from different male callers.

Juan M. Guayasamin, USA

My current research focuses in the phylogenetic relationships and evolution of glass frogs (Amphibia: Anura: Centrolenidae) based on molecular, morphological, and behavioral characters. Once a hypothesis of relationships is available, a central point is the study of the evolution of vocalizations in glass frogs (considering that vocalizations are under both natural and sexual selection).

Branko Hilje, Costa Rica

Microgeographic variation in individuals' song between two populations has been used to evaluate bird species separation between two places. These song differences in frequencies and structures have been concordant with genetic differences among two populations' individuals. However, in amphibians are other factors used for species separation, and they are based mainly on morphology that has not always been leaning with genetic differentiation. It is possible that into what has been assumed as a population of a species exists not necessarily morphological differences that separate the individuals of each one due to a geographical barrier working as an insulating factor and therefore cause microgeographic variation. A way to detect these differences on frogs would be analyzing the frequency and structure changes of the song to determine if variation exists between two subpopulations isolated by a geographical factor.

This study will carry out at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. I will record 20 individual songs from two species (20 for each one) of frogs in the surroundings of the station, eliminating places that imply any isolation type like narrow creeks. Also, at La Guaria sector, which is separated from the station for the river Sarapiquí, I will record other 20 songs from both species. This river possesses a strong and wide flow continually in its course. For the analysis of the different components of the song of the species I will use RAVEN software.

Sally Keith, Graham Wallace, and Melissa Waller, United Kingdom

Sally Keith is researching the vocal diversity of the female kloss's gibbon (Hylobates klossii) in the Mentawai Islands, Indonesia. This involves sonagraphic analysis of male vocalisations from four different sites in the island chain. These will be compared statistically to determine the level of variation between populations and islands. If vocal diversity is high between the islands it is possible that this represents subspeciation.

Graham Wallace is conducting systematic acoustic surveys to identify currently uninvestigated species of galagos (small-bodied nocturnal primates) in southern Malawi. These galagos occur in increasingly fragmented and threatened forest habitats and, without urgent research, may disappear without identification or before sufficient information is gathered to implement effective conservation strategies. Galagos rely on vocal communication for mate recognition and social organisation, and calls have specific behavioural functionality. As vocal ‘fingerprinting’ is the key to assessing galago diversity, Raven software will be used for analysis of call characteristics to identify species within the region.

Melissa Waller is researching the vocal diversity of the male kloss's gibbon (Hylobates klossii) in the Mentawai Islands, Indonesia. This involves sonagraphic analysis of male vocalisations from four different sites in the island chain. These will be compared statistically to determine the level of variation between populations and islands. If vocal diversity is high between the islands it is possible that this represents subspeciation.

Paulo Marques, Portugal

PhD in Biology from Universidade de Lisboa (Ecology and Biosystematics), my research deals with acoustic behavior and structural characteristics of sounds of birds and amphibians. Currently I am initiating a study on the evolution of sounds in complex environments, project developed in association with the Fonoteca Zoológica (Madrid) and Museu Bocage (Lisboa).

Daniela Pivari, Brazil

The Raven software will be used to analise the data collected for my PhD research intitled: "Some aspects of Sotalia fluviatilis (Cetacea, Delphinidae) bioacoustics". The bioacoustic research is being developed in the same area and I have recorded whistles emissions from solitary individuals and groups from 2 to 10 individuals of S. fluviatilis, which, in order to capture preys, approached Pereirinha (Ilha do Cardoso) and Ponta da Trincheira (Ilha Comprida) beaches in Cananéia estuary. For the PhD research I aim 2 goals:

  1. The investigation of the acoustic impact of boats on these dolphins behavior and emissions;
  2. The investigation about the "signature whistles" hypothesis for S. fluviatilis. This study will adress important ecological relationships and can contribute to the efforts to preserve this resident dolphins in a estuarine area called Cananéia.

Marius Rakotondratsima and Juliot Ramamonjisoa, Madagascar

Otus madagascariensis is a Malagasy Scops-Owl species that has been recently re-described as a separate species from Otus rutilus. The distinction between the two species was mainly based on vocalizationand geographical distribution. In fact, the song of Otus rutilus is typically be very simple compared to those of Otus madagascariensis (Rasmussen et al, 2000). So, our study will be focusing on song patterns and call song repertoire of Otus madagascariensis, as no genetic study has been conducted to fulfill those descriptions, nor acoustic communication system study within each of the two species. The bird songs will be recorded with a sound recorder during the fieldwork, and then will be transferred into the computer for analysis using Raven software. We expect to enrich the taxonomic description of this species with its song characteristics.

Marcos Rossi-Santos, Brazil

I have been studying bioacoustics since 1997, mainly with the river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis and Sotalia fluviatilis) in the Brazilian Amazonia and the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) along the coast. At the Brazilian Humpback Whale Institute, since 2002, I have been working on a study with estuarine dolphins in the Abrolhos Bank, the most offshore limit of distribution for the species, which presents a very interesting variety of environments to the Sotalia studies, as coral reefs, estuaries and long sandy beaches, and eventually other dolphin species in the area, as the bottlenose and rough-tooted dolphins, and even humpback whales, once this is their breeding ground. Nowadays the region have suffering with increasing potential disturbance, as the transport of eucalyptus in barges for celluloses and the perspective of seismic activity for oil exploitation. I have been recording dolphin acoustic behavior and some potential sources of noise, as the barges, tourism and fishing boats. Now, using Raven 1.2.1, I will develop all the data analyses, beyond to start new research proposes.

Sidnei Sampaio dos Santos, Brazil

I’m conducting researches about Pyriglena atra (AVES:Thamnophilidae), a global threatened specie and endemic of Atlantic Forest. We’re using the play-back technique to detect the specie on the forests fragments through the areas where P. atra are found. During these searches we also record other specie’s sounds to structure the sound bank of Bahia-Brazil. The Raven program will be important for the future analysis of the answer vocalization of Pyriglena atra and also to work on all the diverse recorded sonorous manifestations, to edit CD’s of birds sounds for farmers and community distribution. We have been successfully using the bird’s sound as a manner of call people’s attention for the Brazilian Atlantic Forest conservation that is more fragmented, day by day.

Sharmishta Sarkar, India

Spectrographic analysis of the vocal signals of the Nilgiri langurs using Raven will be carried to study various aspects of vocal communication, with special reference to nonlinear phenomenon present in each signal. This may enable individual identification and may provide an insight into intra-group hierarchy and dominance patterns between groups. Comparative analysis of acoustic signals between age classes and the corresponding observed behavior may aid in the understanding of the development of vocal communication in immatures. It may also be possible to understand the alarm system of the species.

Heike Vester, Norway

I study the vocal behavior of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in northern Norwegian coastal waters in absence and presence of boat noise. Raven will make it possible for me to view and analyze the complex calls killer whales use for navigation, foraging and socializing. With these studies I hope to contribute to a better understanding and management of killer whales in Norwegian waters.

 

Winner of a Canary license

 

Paolo Ramoni-Perazzi, Venezuela

Trogons are an interesting group for studies of acoustic evolution. First, they don't learn to sing and, therefore, their vocalizations are a result of their genetic background. Second, they generally inhabit forested areas and, therefore, many traits of their vocalizations' shape should reflect the history of the group more than a convergent adaptation to the environment. Third, their phylogeny remains unsolved, as molecular ones have yielded contradictory histories. The study of independent characters systems, as vocal ones, should help to solve the phylogeny of the group. The aims of this project are: a) To obtain a phylogeny of Trogons based on vocal characters; b) To explore the utility of perch songs to recover the phylogenetic signal in this group of birds; c) To determine the phylogenetic relationships of several interesting species not included in the previous molecular phylogenies; d) To explore the role of vocalizations in the diversification of this group.