Clements Checklist

August 2018

Overview

Go directly to the 2018 Updates & Corrections

This is the 13th installment of Updates and Corrections following the publication (2007) of the 6th edition of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World; because the Clements Checklist is tightly interwoven with the taxonomy for eBird, the checklist now is referred to as the eBird/Clements Checklist. The entire checklist (including the 2018 Updates and Corrections) is available as a downloadable spreadsheet (in Excel and .csv formats). This year’s spreadsheet version is eBird/Clements Checklist v2018, and was released on 14 August 2018.

The spreadsheet contains 14 fields (data columns):

sort v2018 – reflects the sequence of species, groups, and subspecies in eBird/Clements v2018

Clements v2018 change – a brief note to signal that a change from eBird/Clements Checklist v2017 occurred for that entry. Sometimes only a single change is made per entry; sometimes several changes are made. In all cases, please consult the Updates and Corrections – August 2018 page for a full explanation of these changes.

 text for website v2018 – a brief explanation of the change from Clements Checklist v2017 that occurred for that entry. The changes also are documented on the Updates and Corrections 2018 page.

 category – reflecting whether the entry on that line is a species; a subspecies; a monotypic group (i.e., a group that is equivalent to a single subspecies); or a polytypic group (a group composed of two or more subspecies). Thus, the total number of subspecies recognized in the eBird/Clements Checklist is the sum of all entries listed as “subspecies” and as “group (monotypic)”.

 English name

 scientific name

 range

 order

 family

 extinct – an entry (1) in this column means that the species or subspecies is extinct

 extinct year – reflects the year the species or subspecies went extinct (or, since the extinction date rarely is known with certainty, the last year in which it was reported); “xxxx” is used when the date of extinction is not readily accessible.

sort v2017 – reflecting the sequence of species in eBird/Clements Checklist v2017

page 6.0 – reflecting the page number of the species in the last (sixth) print edition (2007)

Here is a brief review of the changes that are introduced in the eBird/Clements Checklist v2017:

SUMMARY STATISTICS

Species             10,585
Subspecies       20,530

Groups               3,796

Families               250 (with 1 additional, extinct, family)

SPECIES

In this year’s updates, we have a net gain from five new species, that is, species for which there was no entry at all in the previous edition of the eBird/Clements Checklist. Three of these are from South America, that seemingly inexhaustible source of new discoveries: Santa Marta Screech-Owl (Megascops gilesi), from Colombia, and two new species from Peru, Cordillera Azul Antbird (Myrmoderus eowilsoni) and Painted Manakin (Machaeropterus eckelberryi). At the other end of the world comes Rote Myzomela (Myzomela irianawidodoae), from Rote Island, Indonesia. Finally, we add another extinct species of columbid, Spotted Green Pigeon (Caloenas maculata); this species is very poorly known, but apparently was native to an island or an island group in the South Pacific. Another 36 species are newly recognized in the eBird/Clements Checklist due to “splits.” There is a loss of 7 species due to “lumps.”

As before, we update the taxonomy and nomenclature of species for North America, based largely on decisions of the North American Checklist Committee (NACC), through the Fifty-ninth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American Birds (July 2018).  We also are current with decisions of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) through 21 June 2018.

GROUPS

eBird/Clements Checklist has adopted the concept of the group, which initially was developed by eBird, a free, global online system to manage your bird records and bird lists. A “group” is a distinctive (field identifiable) subspecies or group of subspecies. The group is not a formal taxonomic unit, but often represents a potential future split (and so groups are a valuable taxonomic tool for the savvy birder).

Groups first were added to Clements Checklist in December 2009 (Clements Checklist 6.5). In the eBird/Clements Checklist v2018, we add 136 new groups.

Our attempt at arranging subspecies into groups is incomplete with respect to Red Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra). For this species, we recognize 12 monotypic groups, but we also list eight subspecies that are not identified as groups. These “hanging” subspecies are color coded in gray in the eBird/Clements Checklist to clarify that their status with respect to groups remains unresolved. Note that in eBird we also recognize 16 call types in Red Crossbill; at least some of these eventually may prove to be equivalent to a named subspecies.

HIGHER LEVEL TAXONOMY

One new order is added, Musophagiformes, for the Turacos (Musophagidae). Consequently we now recognize 41 extant orders. Two new families are added this year: Oceanitidae (Southern Storm-Petrels), and Platylophidae (Crested Shrikejay – formerly Crested Jay). The total number of extant families in the eBird/Clements Checklist increases to 250, with an additional extinct family (Mohoidae Hawaiian Honeyeaters), for a total of 251 families.

We also extensively revise the sequence of orders among the nonpasserines, and the sequence of families in the nine-primaried oscines.

The 250 extant families accepted by Clements Checklist are listed below, with the names of orders in bold CAPITAL lettering, and with an additional extinct family listed in brackets. We also provide the number of families in each order (in parentheses, after the name of each order), and the number of species in each family (in parentheses, after the name of each family).

STRUTHIONIFORMES  (1)

1                 Struthionidae                                        Ostriches  (2)

RHEIFORMES  (1)                               

2                 Rheidae                                               Rheas  (2)

TINAMIFORMES  (1)                            

3                 Tinamidae                                            Tinamous  (47)

CASUARIIFORMES  (1)                       

4                 Casuariidae                                          Cassowaries and Emu  (4)

APTERYGIFORMES  (1)                      

5                 Apterygidae                                          Kiwis  (5)

ANSERIFORMES  (3)                          

6                 Anhimidae                                            Screamers  (3)

7                 Anseranatidae                                      Magpie Goose  (1)

8                 Anatidae                                              Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl  (168)

GALLIFORMES  (5)                             

9                 Megapodiidae                                      Megapodes  (22)

10              Cracidae                                               Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows  (54)

11              Numididae                                            Guineafowl  (6)

12              Odontophoridae                                   New World Quail  (33)

13              Phasianidae                                         Pheasants, Grouse, and Allies  (177)

PHOENICOPTERIFORMES  (1)           

14              Phoenicopteridae                                 Flamingos  (6)

PODICIPEDIFORMES  (1)                   

15              Podicipedidae                                      Grebes  (22)

COLUMBIFORMES  (1)                        

16              Columbidae                                          Pigeons and Doves  (342)

MESITORNITHIFORMES  (1)               

17              Mesitornithidae                                     Mesites  (3)

PTEROCLIFORMES  (1)                      

18              Pteroclidae                                           Sandgrouse  (16)

OTIDIFORMES  (1)                              

19              Otididae                                               Bustards  (26)

MUSOPHAGIFORMES  (1)             new order

20              Musophagidae                                     Turacos  (23)

CUCULIFORMES  (1)                           

21              Cuculidae                                             Cuckoos  (146)

CAPRIMULGIFORMES  (8)                  

22              Podargidae                                          Frogmouths  (15)

23              Caprimulgidae                                      Nightjars and Allies  (98)

24              Nyctibiidae                                            Potoos  (7)

25              Steatornithidae                                     Oilbird  (1)

26              Aegothelidae                                        Owlet-nightjars  (10)

27              Apodidae                                             Swifts  (112)

28              Hemiprocnidae                                     Treeswifts  (4)

29              Trochilidae                                            Hummingbirds  (347)

OPISTHOCOMIFORMES  (1)               

30              Opisthocomidae                                   Hoatzin  (1)

GRUIFORMES  (6)                               

31              Sarothruridae                                       Flufftails  (12)

32              Rallidae                                                Rails, Gallinules, and Coots  (144)

33              Heliornithidae                                       Finfoots  (3)

34              Aramidae                                              Limpkin  (1)

35              Psophiidae                                           Trumpeters  (3)

36              Gruidae                                                Cranes  (15)

CHARADRIIFORMES  (19)                   

37              Chionidae                                             Sheathbills  (2)

38              Pluvianellidae                                       Magellanic Plover  (1)

39              Burhinidae                                            Thick-knees  (10)

40              Pluvianidae                                          Egyptian Plover  (1)

41              Recurvirostridae                                    Stilts and Avocets  (9)

42              Ibidorhynchidae                                    Ibisbill  (1)

43              Haematopodidae                                  Oystercatchers  (12)

44              Charadriidae                                         Plovers and Lapwings  (67)

45              Pedionomidae                                      Plains-wanderer  (1)

46              Thinocoridae                                        Seedsnipes  (4)

47              Rostratulidae                                        Painted-Snipes  (3)

48              Jacanidae                                            Jacanas  (8)

49              Scolopacidae                                       Sandpipers and Allies  (97)

50              Turnicidae                                            Buttonquail  (16)

51              Dromadidae                                          Crab Plover  (1)

52              Glareolidae                                           Pratincoles and Coursers  (17)

53              Stercorariidae                                       Skuas and Jaegers  (7)

54              Alcidae                                                 Auks, Murres, and Puffins  (25)

55              Laridae                                                 Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers  (98)

EURYPYGIFORMES  (2)                     

56              Rhynochetidae                                     Kagu  (1)

57              Eurypygidae                                         Sunbittern  (1)

PHAETHONTIFORMES  (1)                 

58              Phaethontidae                                     Tropicbirds  (3)

GAVIIFORMES  (1)                              

59              Gaviidae                                               Loons  (5)

SPHENISCIFORMES  (1)                     

60              Spheniscidae                                       Penguins  (18)

PROCELLARIIFORMES  (4)                

61              Diomedeidae                                        Albatrosses  (15)

62              Oceanitidae                                          Southern Storm-Petrels  (9)   new family

63              Hydrobatidae                                        Northern Storm-Petrels  (18)

64              Procellariidae                                        Shearwaters and Petrels  (92)

CICONIIFORMES  (1)                          

65              Ciconiidae                                            Storks  (19)

SULIFORMES  (4)                               

66              Fregatidae                                            Frigatebirds  (5)

67              Sulidae                                                 Boobies and Gannets  (10)

68              Anhingidae                                           Anhingas  (4)

69              Phalacrocoracidae                                Cormorants and Shags  (40)

PELECANIFORMES  (5)                      

70              Pelecanidae                                         Pelicans  (8)

71              Balaenicipitidae                                    Shoebill  (1)

72              Scopidae                                              Hamerkop  (1)

73              Ardeidae                                              Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns  (64)

74              Threskiornithidae                                  Ibises and Spoonbills  (34)

CATHARTIFORMES (1)                       

75              Cathartidae                                          New World Vultures  (7)

ACCIPITRIFORMES  (3)                      

76              Sagittariidae                                         Secretarybird  (1)

77              Pandionidae                                         Osprey  (1)

78              Accipitridae                                           Hawks, Eagles, and Kites  (247)

STRIGIFORMES  (2)                            

79              Tytonidae                                             Barn-Owls  (18)

80              Strigidae                                               Owls  (209)

COLIIFORMES  (1)                              

81              Coliidae                                                Mousebirds  (6)

LEPTOSOMIFORMES (1)

82              Leptosomidae                                      Cuckoo-Roller  (1)

TROGONIFORMES  (1)                       

83              Trogonidae                                           Trogons  (44)

BUCEROTIFORMES (4)

84              Upupidae                                             Hoopoes  (2)

85              Phoeniculidae                                      Woodhoopoes and Scimitarbills  (8)

86              Bucorvidae                                           Ground-Hornbills  (2)

87              Bucerotidae                                          Hornbills  (59)

CORACIIFORMES  (6)                         

88              Todidae                                                Todies  (5)

89              Momotidae                                           Motmots  (14)

90              Alcedinidae                                          Kingfishers  (117)

91              Meropidae                                            Bee-eaters  (28)

92              Coraciidae                                            Rollers  (12)

93              Brachypteraciidae                                 Ground-Rollers  (5)

GALBULIFORMES  (2)                          

94              Bucconidae                                          Puffbirds  (36)

95              Galbulidae                                            Jacamars  (18)

PICIFORMES  (7)                                

96              Lybiidae                                               African Barbets  (41)

97              Megalaimidae                                       Asian Barbets  (34)

98              Capitonidae                                          New World Barbets  (14)

99              Semnornithidae                                    Toucan-Barbets  (2)

100           Ramphastidae                                      Toucans  (36)

101           Indicatoridae                                        Honeyguides  (17)

102           Picidae                                                 Woodpeckers  (231)

CARIAMIFORMES  (1)                         

103           Cariamidae                                           Seriemas  (2)

FALCONIFORMES  (1)                        

104           Falconidae                                           Falcons and Caracaras  (65)

PSITTACIFORMES  (4)                        

105           Strigopidae                                           New Zealand Parrots  (4)

106           Cacatuidae                                           Cockatoos  (21)

107           Psittaculidae                                         Old World Parrots  (180)

108           Psittacidae                                           New World and African Parrots  (168)

PASSERIFORMES  (142)                    

109           Acanthisittidae                                      New Zealand Wrens  (4)

110           Calyptomenidae                                   African and Green Broadbills  (6)

111           Eurylaimidae                                         Asian and Grauer’s Broadbills  (9)

112           Sapayoidae                                          Sapayoa  (1)

113           Philepittidae                                         Asities  (4)

114           Pittidae                                                 Pittas  (44)

115           Thamnophilidae                                    Typical Antbirds  (236)

116           Melanopareiidae                                   Crescentchests  (4)

117           Conopophagidae                                 Gnateaters  (11)

118           Grallariidae                                           Antpittas  (55)

119           Rhinocryptidae                                     Tapaculos  (60)

120           Formicariidae                                        Antthrushes  (11)

121           Furnariidae                                           Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers  (303)

122           Tyrannidae                                           Tyrant Flycatchers  (423)

123           Oxyruncidae                                         Sharpbill  (1)

124           Cotingidae                                            Cotingas  (65)

125           Pipridae                                                Manakins  (56)

126           Tityridae                                               Tityras and Allies  (33)

127           Menuridae                                            Lyrebirds  (2)

128           Atrichornithidae                                    Scrub-birds  (2)

129           Ptilonorhynchidae                                 Bowerbirds  (26)

130           Climacteridae                                        Australasian Treecreepers  (7)

131           Maluridae                                             Fairywrens  (33)

132           Meliphagidae                                        Honeyeaters  (186)

133           Dasyornithidae                                     Bristlebirds  (3)

134           Pardalotidae                                         Pardalotes  (4)

135           Acanthizidae                                        Thornbills and Allies  (64)

136           Pomatostomidae                                  Pseudo-Babblers  (5)

137           Orthonychidae                                      Logrunners  (3)

138           Cnemophilidae                                     Satinbirds  (3)

139           Melanocharitidae                                  Berrypeckers and Longbills  (10)

140           Mohouidae                                           Whiteheads  (3)

141           Paramythiidae                                      Tit Berrypecker and Crested Berrypecker  (2)

142           Callaeidae                                            Wattlebirds  (5)

143           Notiomystidae                                       Stitchbird  (1)

144           Psophodidae                                        Whipbirds and Wedgebills  (5)

145           Cinclosomatidae                                   Quail-thrushes and Jewel-babblers  (11)

146           Platysteiridae                                        Wattle-eyes and Batises  (30)

147           Vangidae                                             Vangas, Helmetshrikes, and Allies  (39)

148           Malaconotidae                                      Bushshrikes and Allies  (50)

149           Machaerirhynchidae                             Boatbills  (2)

150           Artamidae                                             Woodswallows  (11)

151           Cracticidae                                           Bellmagpies and Allies  (13)

152           Pityriasidae                                           Bristlehead  (1)

153           Aegithinidae                                         Ioras  (4)

154           Campephagidae                                   Cuckooshrikes  (87)

155           Neosittidae                                           Sittellas  (2)

156           Eulacestomatidae                                 Ploughbill  (1)

157           Falcunculidae                                       Shrike-tit  (1)

158           Pachycephalidae                                  Whistlers and Allies  (56)

159           Rhagologidae                                       Mottled Berryhunter  (1)

160           Oreoicidae                                            Australo-Papuan Bellbirds  (3)

161           Platylophidae                                       Crested Shrikejay  (1)          new family

162           Laniidae                                               Shrikes  (33)

163           Vireonidae                                            Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis  (63)

164           Oriolidae                                               Old World Orioles  (36)

165           Dicruridae                                             Drongos  (25)

166           Rhipiduridae                                         Fantails  (53)

167           Ifritidae                                                 Ifrita  (1)

168           Monarchidae                                        Monarch Flycatchers  (99)

169           Corvidae                                               Crows, Jays, and Magpies  (128)

170           Corcoracidae                                        White-winged Chough and Apostlebird  (2)

171           Paradisaeidae                                      Birds-of-Paradise  (42)

172           Melampittidae                                       Melampittas  (2)

173           Petroicidae                                           Australasian Robins  (47)

174           Picathartidae                                        Rockfowl  (2)

175           Chaetopidae                                        Rockjumpers  (2)

176           Eupetidae                                            Rail-babbler  (1)

177           Panuridae                                            Bearded Reedling  (1)

178           Nicatoridae                                           Nicators  (3)

179           Alaudidae                                             Larks  (97)

180           Hirundinidae                                         Swallows  (86)

181           Stenostiridae                                        Fairy Flycatchers  (9)

182           Paridae                                                Tits, Chickadees, and Titmice  (63)

183           Remizidae                                            Penduline-Tits  (11)

184           Aegithalidae                                         Long-tailed Tits  (11)

185           Sittidae                                                 Nuthatches  (27)

186           Tichodromidae                                      Wallcreeper  (1)

187           Certhiidae                                             Treecreepers  (11)

188           Troglodytidae                                       Wrens  (85)

189           Polioptilidae                                          Gnatcatchers  (15)

190           Cinclidae                                              Dippers  (5)

191           Pycnonotidae                                       Bulbuls  (143)

192           Regulidae                                             Kinglets  (6)

193           Pnoepygidae                                        Cupwings  (5)

194           Macrosphenidae                                   African Warblers  (21)

195           Scotocercidae                                      Bush Warblers and Allies  (36)

196           Phylloscopidae                                     Leaf Warblers  (76)

197           Acrocephalidae                                    Reed Warblers and Allies  (61)

198           Locustellidae                                        Grassbirds and Allies  (61)

199           Donacobiidae                                       Donacobius  (1)

200           Bernieridae                                           Malagasy Warblers  (11)

201           Cisticolidae                                           Cisticolas and Allies  (145)

202           Sylviidae                                               Sylviid Warblers  (33)

203           Paradoxornithidae                                Parrotbills, Wrentit, and Allies  (36)

204           Zosteropidae                                        White-eyes, Yuhinas, and Allies  (130)

205           Timaliidae                                             Tree-Babblers, Scimitar-Babblers, and Allies  (52)

206           Pellorneidae                                         Ground Babblers and Allies  (58)

207           Leiothrichidae                                       Laughingthrushes and Allies  (146)

208           Promeropidae                                       Sugarbirds  (2)

209           Modulatricidae                                      Dapple-throat and Allies  (3)

210           Irenidae                                                Fairy-bluebirds  (2)

211           Hyliotidae                                             Hyliotas  (4)

212           Muscicapidae                                       Old World Flycatchers  (317)

213           Turdidae                                               Thrushes and Allies  (171)

214           Mimidae                                                Mockingbirds and Thrashers  (34)

215           Sturnidae                                             Starlings  (122)

216           Buphagidae                                         Oxpeckers  (2)

217           Chloropseidae                                      Leafbirds  (11)

218           Dicaeidae                                             Flowerpeckers  (47)

219           Nectariniidae                                        Sunbirds and Spiderhunters  (139)

220           Prunellidae                                           Accentors  (13)

221           Motacillidae                                          Wagtails and Pipits  (67)

222           Urocynchramidae                                  Przevalski’s Pinktail  (1)

223           Elachuridae                                          Spotted Elachura  (1)

224           Bombycillidae                                       Waxwings  (3)

225           Mohoidae                                             Hawaiian Honeyeaters  (5)  [extinct]

226           Ptiliogonatidae                                     Silky-flycatchers  (4)

227           Dulidae                                                 Palmchat  (1)

228           Hylocitreidae                                         Hylocitrea  (1)

229           Hypocoliidae                                         Hypocolius  (1)

230           Peucedramidae                                    Olive Warbler  (1)

231           Fringillidae                                            Finches, Euphonias, and Allies  (225)

232           Calcariidae                                           Longspurs and Snow Buntings  (6)

233           Rhodinocichlidae                                  Thrush-Tanager  (1)

234           Emberizidae                                         Old World Buntings  (44)

235           Passerellidae                                        New World Sparrows  (130)

236           Calyptophilidae                                     Chat-Tanagers  (2)

237           Phaenicophilidae                                  Hispaniolan Tanagers  (4)

238           Nesospingidae                                     Puerto Rican Tanager  (1)

239           Spindalidae                                          Spindalises  (4)

240           Zeledoniidae                                        Wrenthrush  (1)

241           Teretistridae                                         Cuban Warblers  (2)

242           Icteriidae                                              Yellow-breasted Chat  (1)

243           Icteridae                                               Troupials and Allies  (105)

244           Parulidae                                              New World Warblers  (110)

245           Mitrospingidae                                      Mitrospingid Tanagers  (4)

246           Cardinalidae                                         Cardinals and Allies  (49)

247           Thraupidae                                           Tanagers and Allies  (377)

248           Passeridae                                           Old World Sparrows  (42)

249           Ploceidae                                             Weavers and Allies  (116)

250           Estrildidae                                            Waxbills and Allies  (140)

251           Viduidae                                               Indigobirds  (20)

 

FUTURE UPDATES

The next annual revision that incorporates revisions to the taxonomy and nomenclature of the eBird/Clements Checklist will be released in August 2019.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Please continue to report potential errors, corrections, and suggestions for improvement to eBird/Clements Checklist (please send taxonomic changes, suggestions, or questions to cornellbirds@cornell.edu). Many of the errors that you find are ones that would have taken a long time to notice, so we appreciate your help, and we do want to hear from you. Please keep in mind, of course, that the easiest corrections or proposed revisions are ones that are accompanied by a supporting reference or citation.

Denis Lepage, who administers Avibase, carefully reviewed our files, made useful comparisons with other taxonomies, pointed out errors, and helped with many taxonomic issues through this process; we are extremely grateful for his generous assistance. Les Christidis, Nigel Collar, David Donsker, Frank Gill, and Josep del Hoyo contributed many valuable insights on the classification of waterfowl; Frank and David also have gone out of their way to provide helpful suggestions across the board, and to be a sounding board on many issues related to taxonomy and nomenclature. Normand David provided helpful advice on some nomenclatural issues. We take full responsibility, of course, for any remaining errors. We are grateful to Terry Chesser for providing advance copies of works in progress, and to both Terry and to Van Remsen for their too-little appreciated roles in chairing regional classification committees.

We also thank the following for their help in providing helpful comments on the eBird/Clements Checklist or for directing us to important literature for our consideration:

Nicholas H. Acheson, Margaret and Richard Alcorn, Desmond Allen, Christopher Amano-Langtree, Nick Anich, Christian Artuso, Aaron Boone, Matt Brady, Paul Brooks, Jan Axel Cubilla, David Bishop, Matt Brady, Tayler Brooks, Paul Clapham, Jacob Cooper, Andrew Core, Ian Davies, John Dillon, Pete Dunten, Ted Floyd, James Fox, Benjamin Freeman, Mat and Cathy Gilfedder, Fabrico Gorleri, Hector Gómez de Silva, Alan Grenon, Jean-Sébastien Guénette, Heidi Guttschuss, Peter Hosner, Praveen J, Alvaro Jaramillo, Rajah Jayapal, Oscar Johnson, Peter Kaestner, Max Kirsch, Ethan Kistler, Peter Kovalik, Dan Lane, Niels Larsen, Raphaël Lebrun, Tony Leukering, Jack Levene, Anonymous in Manaus, Axel Mauruszat, Jay McGowan, Matt Medler, Fernando Medrano, Steven Mlodinow, Joe Morlan, Scott Olmstead, Tommy Pedersen, Christian Perez, Yoav Perlman, Suhel Quader, Martin Reid, Craig Robson, Michael Schrimpf, Holger Schritt, Glenn Seeholzer, Luke Seitz, Chris Siddle, David Slager, Tim Spahr, Andrew Spencer, Phil Tizzard, Wich’yanan Limparungpatthanakij, Matt Young, and Adam Winer, as well as the wider community of eBird users, the always astute members of the Taxonomy and Nomenclature group on BirdForum, and no doubt others who we inadvertently may have overlooked.

Thanks to all for your support, and we look forward to your feedback.

Thomas S. Schulenberg (Avian Taxonomist); Marshall J. Iliff, Brian L. Sullivan, and Christopher L. Wood (eBird Project Leaders); Thomas A. Fredericks (eBird Database Administrator); and Don Roberson.