Clements Checklist

Updates & Corrections – August 2016

2016 UPDATES and CORRECTIONS, to accompany the eBird/Clements Checklist v2016 spreadsheet
Posted 9 August 2016

The Updates and Corrections are grouped into four sections. Within each section, items are listed in the order in which they are encountered in the eBird/Clements Checklist v2016 spreadsheet, although we also continue to reference by page number the relevant entry in the last published edition of the Clements Checklist (sixth edition, 2007).

The four sections are

Species – gains and losses   (posted 9 August 2016)

Orders and Families – gains, losses, and changes to order or family composition or nomenclature   (posted 9 August 2016)

Standard Updates and Correction – all other changes, listed in sequence as they occur in the spreadsheet   (in progress – will be posted as soon as this documentation is available)

Groups – a list of new groups   (posted 9 August 2016)

SPECIES

SPECIES GAINS (splits and newly discovered species) 

page 10, Great-winged Petrel  Pterodroma macroptera

Each of the two monotypic groups of Great-winged Petrel is elevated to species rank, based on differences in mitochondrial DNA, vocalizations, plumage, morphometrics, and in other aspects of their biology (Wood et al. 2016; see also Onley and Scofield 2007 and Howell 2012): Great-winged Petrel (Great-winged) Pterodroma macroptera macroptera becomes Great-winged Petrel Pterodroma macroptera, and Great-winged Petrel (Gray-faced) Pterodroma macroptera gouldi becomes Gray-faced Petrel Pterodroma gouldi.

References:

Howell, S.N.G. 2012. Petrels, albatrosses, and storm-petrels of North America: a photographic guide. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Onley, D., and P. Scofield. 2007. Albatrosses, petrels, and shearwaters of the world. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Wood, J.R., H.A. Lawrence, R.P. Scofield, G.A. Taylor, P.O’B. Lyver, and D.M. Gleeson. 2016. Morphological, behavioural, and genetic evidence supports reinstatement of full species status for the grey-faced petrel, Pterodroma macroptera gouldi (Procellariiformes: Procellariidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 

page 14, Leach’s Storm-Petrel  Oceanodroma leucorhoa

Leach’s Storm-Petrel is split into three species:

The monotypic group Leach’s Storm-Petrel (Townsend’s) Oceanodroma leucorhoa socorroensis is elevated to species rank as Townsend’s Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma socorrensis. This split is in accord with AOU-NACC (Chesser et al. 2016), based on overlap of breeding range with Ainley’s Storm-Petrel (although with little seasonal overlap in the timing of breeding), and on differences in vocalizations and morphology, as documented by Ainley (1980). Revise the range description for Townsend’s Storm-Petrel from “Summer breeder on Guadalupe I. (off w Mexico)” to “summer breeder on islets off Guadalupe I. (western Mexico); ranges in eastern Pacific north to southern California and south to ca 10º N.”

Similarly, the monotypic group Leach’s Storm-Petrel (Ainley’s) Oceanodroma leucorhoa cheimomnestes is elevated to species rank as Ainley’s Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma cheimomnestes. This split is in accord with AOU-NACC (Chesser et al. 2016), based on overlap of breeding range with Townsend’s Storm-Petrel (although with little seasonal overlap in the timing of breeding), and on differences in vocalizations and morphology, as documented by Ainley (1980). Revise the range description for Ainley’s Storm-Petrel from “Winter breeder on Guadalupe I. (off w Mexico)” to “winter breeder on islets off Guadalupe I. (western Mexico); nonbreeding range poorly known, but apparently disperses south in eastern Pacific, to at least as far as the Galapagos Island.”

Following the split, Leach’s Storm-Petrel now contains only two subspecies, each of which is recognized as a monotypic group: Leach’s Storm-Petrel (Leach’s) Oceanodroma leucorhoa leucorhoa and Leach’s Storm-Petrel (Chapman’s) Oceanodroma leucorhoa chapmani.

References:

Ainley, D.G. 1980. Geographic variation in Leach’s Storm-Petrel. Auk 97: 837-853.

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2016. Fifty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-list of North American birds. Auk 133: 544-560.

page 82, Gray-necked Wood-Rail  Aramides cajaneus

In accord with AOU-NACC (Chesser et al. 2016), Gray-necked Wood-Rail Aramides cajaneus is split into two species: Russet-naped Wood-Rail Aramides albiventris, and Gray-cowled Wood-Rail Aramides cajaneus. This action is based on Marcones and Silveira (2015), who documented significant vocal differences, and less obvious but still consistent plumage differences, between the two species; they also pointed out that these two species appear to be parapatric, replacing one another rather abruptly. Following Marcones and Silveira (2015) Russet-naped Wood-Rail is considered to be monotypic; subspecies mexicanus, vanrossemi, pacificus, and plumbeiceps all are considered to by junior synonyms of albiventris, and are deleted. Revise the range description of albiventris from “Yucatán Peninsula, Cozumel I., Belize and adj. n Guatemala” to “Mexico (north to southern Oaxaca and southern Tamaulipas) south on both slopes to Nicaragua and northeastern Costa Rica.” Again following Marcones and Silveira (2015), subspecies latens and morrisoni are considered to be junior synoynms of nominate cajaneus, and are deleted. Revise the range description of cajaneus from “Costa Rica to n Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil and the Guianas” to “Costa Rica south to northwestern Colombia (including islands off of Panama) and, east of the Andes, to the Guianas and northeastern Brazil south to northern Argentina and Uruguay.”

References:

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2016. Fifty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-list of North American birds. Auk 133: 544-560.

Marcondes, R.S., and L.F. Silveira. 2015. A taxonomic review of Aramides cajaneus (Aves, Gruiformes, Rallidae) with notes on morphological variation in other species of the genus. ZooKeys 500: 111-140.

page 114, Dusky Cuckoo-Dove  Macropygia magna

Based primarily on vocal differences, Dusky Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia magna is split into three species (Ng et al. 2016): a polytypic Flores Sea Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia macassariensis, including subspecies macassariensis and longa; a monotypic Timor Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia magna; and a monotypic Tanimbar Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia timorlaoensis.

Reference:

Ng, E.Y.X., J.A. Eaton, P. Verbelen, R.O. Hutchinson, and F.E. Rheindt. 2016. Using bioacoustic data to test species limits in an Indo-Pacific island radiation of Macropygia cuckoo doves. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 118: 786-812.

page 114, Slender-billed Cuckoo-Dove  Macropygia amboinensis

Based primarily on vocal differences, Slender-billed Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia amboinensis split into two species (Ng et al. 2016): a polytypic Amboyna Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia amboinensis, including subspecies amboinensis, keyensis, maforensis, griseinucha, kerstingi, meeki, admiralitatis, hueskeri, carteretia, goldiei, cinereiceps, and cunctata; and a polytypic Sultan’s Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia doreya, including subspecies sanghirensis, albicapilla, atrata, sedecima, albiceps, doreya, and balim. The sequence of subspecies within Amboyna Cuckoo-Dove is revised, the reflect the order in which they are listed above.

Reference:

Ng, E.Y.X., J.A. Eaton, P. Verbelen, R.O. Hutchinson, and F.E. Rheindt. 2016. Using bioacoustic data to test species limits in an Indo-Pacific island radiation of Macropygia cuckoo doves. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 118: 786-812.

page 114, Ruddy Cuckoo-Dove  Macropygia emiliana

Based primarily on vocal differences, Ruddy Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia emiliana is split into three species (Ng et al. 2016): a polytypic Ruddy Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia emiliana, including subspecies emiliana and megala; a monotypic Enggano Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia cinnamomea; and a polytypic Barusan Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia modiglianii, including subspecies hypopercna, modiglianii, and elassa.

Reference:

Ng, E.Y.X., J.A. Eaton, P. Verbelen, R.O. Hutchinson, and F.E. Rheindt. 2016. Using bioacoustic data to test species limits in an Indo-Pacific island radiation of Macropygia cuckoo doves. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 118: 786-812.

page 115, White-faced Cuckoo-Dove  Turacoena manadensis

White-faced Cuckoo-Dove is not monotypic; sulaensis Forbes and Robinson 1900, long considered to be a junior synomym of nominate manadensis, is vocally distinct (Ng and Rheindt 2016). Therefore, White-faced Cuckoo-Dove is split into two species: White-faced Cuckoo-Dove Turacoena manadensis, with range “Sulawesi and the Togian Islands”; and Sula Cuckoo-Dove Turacoena sulaensis, with range “Banggai Islands and Sula Islands.”

Reference:

Ng, N.S.R., and F.E. Rheindt. 2016. Species delimitation in the White‑faced Cuckoo‑dove (Turacoena manadensis) based on bioacoustic data. Avian Research 7: 2.

page 115, Emerald Dove  Chalcophaps indica

Emerald Dove Chalcophaps indica is split into two species (Rasmussen and Anderton 2005, Beehler and Pratt 2016): a polytypic Asian Emerald Dove Chalcophaps indica, with subspecies indica, robinsoni, natalis, minima, and augusta; and a polytypic Pacific Emerald Dove Chalcophaps longirostris, with subspecies rogersi, longirostris, and sandwichensis.

References:

Beehler, B.M., and T.K. Pratt. 2016. Birds of New Guinea: distribution, taxonomy, and systematics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Rasmussen, P.C., and J.C. Anderton. 2005. Birds of South Asia. The Ripley guide. Volume 2: attributes and status. Smithsonian Institution and Lynx Edicions, Washington D.C. and Barcelona.

page 125, Crimson-crowned Fruit-Dove  Ptilinopus porphyraceus

Crimson-crowned Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus porphyraceus is split into three species (Cibois et al. 2014, Hayes et al. 2016, Pratt and Mittermeier 2016): a monotypic Purple-capped Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus ponapensis; a monotypic Kosrae Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus hernsheimi; and a polytypic Crimson-crowned Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus porphyraceus, with subspecies porphyraceus and fasciatus.

References:

Cibois, A., J.-C. Thibault, C. Bonillo, C.E. Filardi, D. Watling, and E. Pasquet. 2014. Phylogeny and biogeography of the fruit doves (Aves: Columbidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 70: 442-453.

Hayes, F.E., H.D. Pratt, and C.J. Cianchini. 2016. The avifauna of Kosrae, Micronesia: history, status, and taxonomy. Pacific Science 70: 91–127.

Pratt, H.D., and J.C. Mittermeier. 2016. Notes on the natural history, taxonomy, and conservation of the endemic avifaua of the Samoan Archipelago. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 128: 217-241.

page 155, Yellowbill  Ceuthmochares aereus

Yellowbill Ceuthmochares aereus is split into two species (Payne 2005): the polytypic group Yellowbill (Blue) Ceuthmochares aereus aereus/flavirostris becomes Blue Malkoha Ceuthmochares aereus, with subspecies aereus and flavirostris; and the monotypic group Yellowbill (Green) Ceuthmochares aereus australis becomes Green Malkoha Ceuthmochares australis.

Reference:

Payne, R.B. 2005. The cuckoos. Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford, United Kingdom.

page 152, Large Hawk-Cuckoo  Hierococcyx sparverioides

Each of the two monotypic groups of Large Hawk-Cuckoo Hierococcyx sparverioides is recognized as a separate species (Sorenson and Payne 2005, Payne 2005): Large Hawk-Cuckoo (Large) Hierococcyx sparverioides sparverioides becomes Large Hawk-Cuckoo Hierococcyx sparverioides, and Large Hawk-Cuckoo (Dark) Hierococcyx sparverioides bocki becomes Dark Hawk-Cuckoo Hierococcyx bocki. Revise the range description of Large Hawk-Cuckoo from “N Pakistan to India, s China, Myanmar, Thailand and Indochina” to “breeds from northern Pakistan to India, southern China, Myanmar, Thailand and Indochina; winters to southern India (Eastern and Western Ghats), Bangladesh, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Bali, the Philippines, Borneo, and Sulawesi”.

References:

Payne, R.B. 2005. The cuckoos. Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford, United Kingdom.

Sorenson, M.D., and R.B. Payne. 2005. A molecular genetic analysis of cuckoo phylogeny. Pages 68-94 in R.B. Payne, The cuckoos. Oxford University Press, New York, New York, and Oxford, United Kingdom.

page 180, Band-winged Nightjar  Systellura longirostris

In accord with AOU-SACC (Proposal 677), the monotypic group Band-winged Nightjar (Tschudi’s) Systellura longirostris decussatus is elevated to species rank as Tschudi’s Nightjar Systellura decussata (note the correction in the spelling of the scientific name, from decussatus to decussata; Dickinson and Remsen 2013). This change is based on the revelation that the vocally distinct Tschudi’s Nightjar is not closely related to Band-winged Nightjar (Sigurdsson and Cracraft 2014). Our adoption of the English name “Tschudi’s Nightjar” is provisional, as AOU-SACC has not yet addressed the question of an English name for decussata (although “Tschudi’s Nightjar” already is in use by some, e.g. Cleere 2010). The retention of decussata in Systellura also is provisional. There is a mismatch between the genetic evidence on relationships among New World nightjars, and the genus level names currently in use by AOU-SACC; this is another issue that awaits review by AOU-SACC.

References:

Cleere, N. 2010. Nightjars: potoos, frogmouths, Oilbird and owlet-nightjars of the world. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Dickinson, E.C., and J.V. Remsen, Jr. (editors). 2013. The Howard & Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world. Fourth edition. Volume 1. Aves Press, Eastbourne, United Kingdom.

Sigurdsson, S. and J. Cracraft. 2014. Deciphering the diversity and history of New World nightjars (Aves: Caprimulgidae) using molecular phylogenetics. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 170: 506-545.

page 195, Green Violetear  Colibri thalassinus

Green Violetear Colibri thalassinus is split into two species, a monotypic Mexican Violetear Colibri thalassinus, which is equivalent to the former eBird group Green Violetear (Northern) Colibri thalassinus thalassinus; and the polytypic Lesser Violetear Colibri cyanotus, which includes the eBird groups Green Violetear (Costa Rican) Colibri thalassinus cabanidis and Green Violetear (Andean) Colibri thalassinus cyanotus/crissalis. This split follows actions by AOU-NACC (Chesser et al. 2016); see also Remsen et al. (2015).

With the split of Green Violetear into two species, change the names of the monotypic group Green Violetear (Costa Rican) Colibri thalassinus cabanidis to Lesser Violetear (Costa Rican) Colibri cyanotus cabanidis; and change the names of the polytypic group Green Violetear (Andean) Colibri thalassinus cyanotus/crissalis to Lesser Violetear (Andean) Colibri cyanotus cyanotus/crissalis.

References:

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2016. Fifty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-list of North American birds. Auk 133: 544-560.

Remsen, J.V., Jr., F.G. Stiles, and J.A. McGuire. 2015. Classification of the Polytminae (Aves: Trochilidae). Zootaxa 3957: 143-150.

page 224, Blue-crowned Motmot  Momotus coeruliceps

In accord with AOU-NACC (Chesser et al. 2016), Blue-crowned Motmot Momotus coeruliceps is split into two species. The monotypic group Blue-crowned Motmot (Blue-crowned) Momotus coeruliceps coeruliceps is elevated to species rank as Blue-capped Motmot Momotus coeruliceps; and the remaining taxa, of the polytypic group Blue-crowned Motmot (Lesson’s) Momotus coeruliceps [lessonii Group], become Lesson’s Motmot Momotus lessonii, which includes the subspecies lessonii, goldmani, and exiguus. “Momotus coeruliceps is treated as separate from M. lessonii on the basis of strong differences in plumage maintained in apparent parapatry” (Chesser et al. 2016).

Reference:

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2016. Fifty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-list of North American birds. Auk 133: 544-560.

page 144, Hispaniolan Parakeet  Psittacara chloropterus

In accord with AOU-NACC (Chesser et al. 2016), the extinct subspecies maugei, which formerly occurred on Mona Island and on adjacent Puerto Rico, is split as a separate species, Puerto Rican Parakeet Psittacara maugei. This split follows Olson (2015), who argued that maugei and chloropterus differ “in plumage and particularly in bill morphology, such that a probable difference in diet is suggested”. With this split, Hispaniolan Parakeet becomes monotypic.

References:

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2016. Fifty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-list of North American birds. Auk 133: 544-560.

Olson, S.L. 2015. History, morphology, and fossil record of the extinct Puerto Rican Parakeet Psittacara maugei Souancé. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 127: 1-12.

page 295, Stipple-throated Antwren  Epinecrophylla haematonota

In accord with AOU-SACC (Proposal 589), each of the three subspecies of Stipple-throated Antwren Epinecrophylla haematonota is elevated to species rank, following Whitney et al. (2013): the monotypic group Stipple-throated Antwren (Negro) Epinecrophylla haematonota pyrrhonota becomes Fulvous-throated Antwren Epinecrophylla pyrrhonota; the monotypic group Stipple-throated Antwren (Napo) Epinecrophylla haematonota haematonota becomes Rufous-backed Antwren Epinecrophylla haematonota; and the monotypic group Stipple-throated Antwren (Madeira) Epinecrophylla haematonota amazonica becomes Madeira Antwren Epinecrophylla amazonica. All of these English names are provisional, pending a final decision on this issue by AOU-SACC (see Proposal 696).

Reference:

Whitney, B.M., M.L. Isler, G.A. Bravo, N. Aristizábal, F. Schunck, L.F. Silveira, and V. de Q. Piacentini. 2013. A new species of Epinecrophylla antwren from the Aripuanã-Machado interfluvium in central Amazonian Brazil with revision of the “stipple-throated antwren” complex. Pages 263-267 in J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, and D. Christie (editors), Handbook of the birds of the world. Special volume. New species and global index. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

page 308, Rufous Gnateater  Conopophaga lineata

In accord with AOU-SACC (Proposal 684), the monotypic group Rufous Gnateater (Ceara) Conopophaga lineata cearae is elevated to species rank as Ceara Gnateater Conopophaga cearae. This split long was anticipated, based on vocal differences between cearae and other subspecies of Rufous Gnateater (Whitney 2003), and was confirmed with genetic data showing that Ceara Gnateater is more closely related to Ash-throated Gnateater (Conopophaga peruviana) than it is to Rufous Gnateater (Batalha-Filho et al. 2014).

References:

Batalha-Filho, H., R.O. Pessoa, P.-H. Fabre, J. Fjeldså, M. Irestedt, P.G.P. Ericson, L.F. Silveira, and C.Y. Miyaki. 2014. Phylogeny and historical biogeography of gnateaters (Passeriformes, Conopophagidae) in the South America forests. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 79: 422-432.

Whitney, B.M. 2003. Family Conopophagidae (Gnateaters).Pages 732-747 in J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and D. Christie (editors), Handbook of the birds of the world. Volume 8. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

addition (2016), Perija Tapaculo  Scytalopus perijanus

Yet another new species of tapaculo was described by Avendaño et al. (2015), and was endorsed by AOU-SACC (Proposal 670) as Perija Tapaculo Scytalopus perijanus, with range “Sierra de Perijá, Colombia (and Venezuela?)”. Insert Perija Tapaculo immediately following Brown-rumped Tapaculo Scytalopus latebricola.

Reference:

Avendaño, J.E., A.M. Cuervo, J.P. López-O., N. Gutiérrez-Pinto, A. Cortés-Diago, and C.D. Cadena. 2015. A new species of tapaculo (Rhinocryptidae: Scytalopus) from the Serranía de Perijá of Colombia and Venezuela. Auk 132: 450-466.

page 271, Vilcabamba Thistletail  Asthenes vilcabambae

In accord with AOU-SACC (Proposal 697), the monotypic group Vilcabamba Thistletail (Ayacucho) Asthenes vilcabambae ayacuchensis is elevated to species rank as Ayacucho Thistletail Asthenes ayacuchensis, based on vocal and genetic differences (Hosner et al. 2015).

Reference:

Hosner, P.A., L. Cueto-Aparicio, G. Ferro-Meza, D. Miranda, and M.B. Robbins. 2015. Vocal and molecular phylogenetic evidence for recognition of a thistletail species (Furnariidae: Asthenes) endemic to the elfin forests of Ayacucho, Peru. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 127: 724-765.

page 320, Lesser Elaenia  Elaenia chiriquensis

In accord with AOU-SACC (Proposal 686), Elaenia chiriquensis brachyptera is elevated to species rank as Coopmans’s Elaenia (Elaenia brachyptera). This split is based primarily on vocal differences between Coopmans’s and Lesser elaenias, as well as on a relatively deep genetic divergence between Coopmans’s Elaenia and the two other subspecies of Lesser Elaenia (Rheindt et al. 2015). Also, revise the range description of brachyptera from “Pacific slope of sw Colombia (Nariño) and nw Ecuador” to “Pacific slope of southwestern Colombia (Nariño) and northwestern Ecuador; also east slope of the Andes of Ecuador.”

Reference:

Rheindt, F.E., N. Krabbe, A.K.S. Wee, and L. Christidis. 2015. Cryptic speciation in the Lesser Elaenia Elaenia chiriquensis (Aves: Passeriformes: Tyrannidae). Zootaxa 4032: 251-263.

page 585, White-eared Catbird  Ailuroedus buccoides

White-eared Catbird Ailuroedus buccoides is split into three species (Irestedt et al. 2016): White-eared Catbird Ailuroedus buccoides, which is monotypic; Ochre-breasted Catbird Ailurodeus stonii, which includes subspecies stonii and cinnamomeus; and Tan-capped Catbird Ailuroedus geislerorum, which includes geislerorum and a newly added subspecies, molestus. Following Irestedt et al. (2016), we recognize subspecies molestus, with range “lowlands of southeastern New Guinea (north side of Owen Stanley Range)”; described in 1929, molestus previously was considered to be a junior synonym of geislerorum. Subspecies oorti, with range “W Papuan islands and w New Guinea”, is merged with buccoides (Mees 1964, Beehler and Pratt 2016). Revise the range of buccoides from “S New Guinea (Triton Bay to upper Fly River)” to “western Papuan Islands and northwestern New Guinea, east through southern lowlands to upper Kikori River”.

References:

Beehler, B.M., and T.K. Pratt. 2016. Birds of New Guinea: distribution, taxonomy, and systematics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Irestedt, M., H. Batalha-Filho, C.S. Roselaar, L. Christidis, and P.G.P. Ericson. 2016. Contrasting phylogeographic signatures in two Australo-Papuan bowerbird species complexes (Aves: Ailuroedus). Zoologica Scripta 45: 365-379.

Mees, G.F. 1964. Four new subspecies of birds from the Moluccas and New Guinea. Zoologische Mededelingen 40: 125-130.

pages 585-586, Spotted Catbird  Ailuroedus melanotis

Spotted Catbird Ailuroedus melanotis is split into six species (Irestedt et al. 2016): Spotted Catbird Ailuroedus maculosus, which is monotypic; Huon Catbird Ailurodeus astigmaticus, which is monotypic; Black-capped Catbird Ailuroedus melanocephalus, which is monotypic; Northern Catbird Ailuroedus jobiensis, which is monotypic; Arfak Catbird Ailuroedus arfakianus, which includes subspecies arfakianus and misoliensis; and Black-eared Catbird Ailuroedus melanotis, which includes the subspecies melanotis, facialis, and joanae. Subspecies guttaticollis is considered to be a junior synonym of jobiensis (Beehler and Pratt 2016, Irestedt et al. 2016), and is deleted. Revise the range description of jobiensis from “New Guinea (Weyland and Adelbert mountains)” to “north central New Guinea (north slope of Western, Border, and Eastern Ranges, and coastal ranges from Foja Mountains east to Adelbert Mountains)”. Note that the scientific name associated with the English name Spotted Catbird has changed from Ailuroedus melanotis (now Black-eared Catbird) to Ailuroedus maculosus.

References:

Beehler, B.M., and T.K. Pratt. 2016. Birds of New Guinea: distribution, taxonomy, and systematics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Irestedt, M., H. Batalha-Filho, C.S. Roselaar, L. Christidis, and P.G.P. Ericson. 2016. Contrasting phylogeographic signatures in two Australo-Papuan bowerbird species complexes (Aves: Ailuroedus). Zoologica Scripta 45: 365-379.

page 517, Striated Grasswren  Amytornis striatus

Striated Grasswren Amytornis striatus is split into four species, following Christidis et al. (2013): Pilbara Grasswren Amytornis whitei; Sandhill Grasswren Amytornis oweni; Rusty Grasswren Amytornis rowleyi; and Striated Grasswren Amytornis striatus. Sandhill Grasswren Amytornis oweni is a newly added taxon; described in 1911, we previously included oweni in nominate striatus. The range of Sandhill Grasswren is “central western Australia, from Western Australia to southwestern Northern Territory and south central South Australia”.  Revise the range of Striated Grasswren from “Sand plains of central Australia to nw Victoria and c NSW” to “southeastern Australia (southeastern South Australia, northwestern Victoria, and New South Wales)”. These species are resquenced, in the order listed above.

Reference:

Christidis, L., F.E. Rheindt, W.E. Boles, and J.A. Norman. 2013. A re-appraisal of species diversity within the Australian grasswrens Amytornis (Aves: Maluridae). Australian Zoologist 36: 429-437.

page 516, Thick-billed Grasswren  Amytornis textilis

Thick-billed Grasswren Amytornis textilis is split into two species, following Black et al. (2010) and Christidis et al. (2013): Western Grasswren Amytornis textilis, including subspecies textilis and myall; and Thick-billed Grasswren Amytornis modestus, which includes subspecies modestus and six newly added subspecies:indulkanna, cowarie, raglessi, curnamona, obscurior, and inexpectatus.

References:

Black, A.B., L. Joseph, L.P. Pedler, and G.A. Carpenter. 2010. A taxonomic framework for interpreting evolution within the Amytornis textilis–modestus complex of grasswrens. Emu 110: 358-363.

Christidis, L., F.E. Rheindt, W.E. Boles, and J.A. Norman. 2013. A re-appraisal of species diversity within the Australian grasswrens Amytornis (Aves: Maluridae). Australian Zoologist 36: 429-437.

page 485, Golden Whistler  Pachycephala pectoralis

The monotypic group Golden Whistler (Balim Valley) Pachycephala pectoralis balim is elevated to species rank as Baliem Whistler Pachycephala balim, following Andersen et al. (2014) and Beehler and Pratt (2016). Correct range statement from “N New Guinea (Balim and Bele valleys)” to “N New Guinea (Baliem and Bele valleys).”

References:

Andersen, M.J., Á.S. Nyári, I. Mason, L. Joseph, J.P. Dumbacher, C.E. Filardi, and R.G. Moyle. 2014.             Molecular systematics of the world’s most polytypic bird: the Pachycephala pectoralis/melanura (Aves: Pachycephalidae) species complex. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 170: 566–588.

Beehler, B.M., and T.K. Pratt. 2016. Birds of New Guinea: distribution, taxonomy, and systematics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

page 485, Golden Whistler  Pachycephala pectoralis

Joseph et al. (2014) documented that the monotypic group Golden Whistler (Western) Pachycephala pectoralis fuliginosa in fact contained two taxa: “true” Pachycephala pectoralis fuliginosa of south central Australia, which is closely related to members of the polytypic group Golden Whistler (Golden) Pachycephala pectoralis [pectoralis Group]; and a cryptic species in southwestern Australia, for which the name occidentalis is available. As a result, we change the English name of the monotypic group Pachycephala pectoralis fuliginosa from Golden Whistler (Western) to Golden Whistler (fuliginosa); we revise the range of fuliginosa from “SW Western Australia to se South Australia and w Victoria” to “south central Australia (southeastern South Australia and western Victoria)”; and we add a newly recognized species, Western Whistler Pachycephala occidentalis, with range “southwestern Australia (southwestern West Australia).”

Reference:

Joseph, L., Á.S. Nyári, and M.J. Andersen. 2014. Taxonomic consequences of cryptic speciation in the Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoralis complex in mainland southern Australia. Zootaxa 3900: 294–300.

page 478, Blue-crested Flycatcher  Myiagra azureocapilla

Following Andersen et al. (2015), Blue-crested Flycatcher Myiagra azureocapilla is split into two species, a monotypic Azure-crested Flycatcher Myiagra azureocapilla and a polytypic Chestnut-throated Flycatcher Myiagra castaneigularis, including subspecies castaneigularis and whitneyi.

Reference:

Andersen, M.J., P.A. Hosner, C.E Filardi, and R.G. Moyle. 2015. Phylogeny of the monarch flycatchers reveals extensive paraphyly and novel relationships within a major Australo-Pacific radiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 67: 336–347.

page 589, Western Scrub-Jay  Aphelocoma californica

In accord with AOU-NACC (Chesser et al. 2016), Western Scrub-Jay Aphelocoma californica is split into two species: California Scrub-Jay Aphelocoma californica, which is equivalent to the former eBird group Western Scrub-Jay (Coastal) Aphelocoma californica [californica Group] (subspecies immanis, caurina, oocleptica, californica, cana, obscura, and hypoleuca), and Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay Aphelocoma woodhouseii, which includes the eBird groups Western Scrub-Jay (Woodhouse’s) Aphelocoma californica [woodhouseii Group] (subspecies nevadae, woodhouseii, texana, grisea, and cyanotis), and Western Scrub-Jay (Sumichrast’s) Aphelocoma californica sumichrasti/remota (subspecies sumichrasti and remota). Change the names of the polytypic group Western Scrub-Jay (Woodhouse’s) Aphelocoma californica [woodhouseii Group] to Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay (Woodhouse’s) Aphelocoma woodhouseii [woodhouseii Group]; and change the names of the polytypic group Western Scrub-Jay (Sumichrast’s) Aphelocoma californica sumichrasti/remota to Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay (Sumichrast’s) Aphelocoma woodhouseii sumichrasti/remota.This split is based on “differences in ecology, morphology, genetics, and vocalizations; although the two species do interbreed, the hybrid zone is narrow, and there is evidence for selection against hybrids” (Chesser et al. 2016).

Reference:

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2016. Fifty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-list of North American birds. Auk 133: 544-560.

page 353, Greater Short-toed Lark  Calandrella brachydactyla

Subspecies dukhunensis is more closely related to Hume’s Lark Calandrella acutirostris than it is to other subspecies of Greater Short-toed Lark (Stervander et al. 2016), and so is elevated to species rank as Syke’s Short-toed Lark Calandrella acutirostris.

Reference:

Stervander, M., P. Alström, U. Olsson, U. Ottosson, B. Hansson, and Staffan Bensch. 2016. Multiple instances of paraphyletic species and cryptic taxa revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear RAD data for Calandrella larks (Aves: Alaudidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 102: 233–245.

page 354, Lesser Short-toed Lark  Calandrella rufescens

The genus Calandrella is not monophyletic (Alström et al. 2013); change the generic name of all members of the Lesser Short-toed Lark complex from Calandrella to Alaudala. Lesser Short-toed Lark is split into two species, Lesser Short-toed Lark Alaudala rufescens and Asian Short-toed Lark Alaudala cheleensis (Dickinson and Decker 2001, Alström et al. 2013). The assignment of subspecies to each species is not entirely resolved; we follow Dickinson and Decker (2001) and Dickinson et al. (2001) in associating cheleensis, leucophaea, kukunoorensis, seebohmi, beicki, stegmanni, and tangutica with Alaudala cheleensis, and remaining taxa with Alaudala rufescens.

References:

Alström, P., K.N. Barnes, U. Olsson, F.K. Barker, P. Bloomer, A.A. Khan, M.A Qureshi, A. Guillaumet, P.-A. Crochet, and P.G. Ryan. 2013. Multilocus phylogeny of the avian family Alaudidae (larks) reveals complex morphological evolution, non-monophyletic genera and hidden species diversity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 69: 1043–1056.

Dickinson, E.C., and R.W.R.J. Decker. 2001. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 11. A preliminary review of the Alaudidae. Preliminary review of the Alaudidae. Zoologische Verhandeligen 335: 61-84.

Dickinson, E.C., R.W.R.J. Dekker, S. Eck, and S. Somadikarta. 2001. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 12. Types of the Alaudidae. Zoologische Verhandeligen 335: 85-126.

pages 355-356, Crested Lark  Galerida cristata

The polytypic group Crested Lark (Maghreb) Galerida cristata macrorhyncha/randoni is elevated to species rank as Maghreb Lark Galerida macrorhyncha, based on genetic and morphological divergence, with evidence of assortative mating at a narrow contact zone (Sangster et el. 2016b, following Guilaumet et al. 2006, 2008). Consequently the polytypic group Crested Lark (Crested) Galerida cristata [cristata Group] is deleted.

References:

Guillaumet, A., J.-M. Pons, B. Godelle, and P.-A. Crochet. 2006. History of the Crested Lark in the Mediterranean region as revealed by mtDNA sequences and morphology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39: 645–656.

Guillaumet, A., P.-A. Crochet, and J.-M. Pons. 2008. Climate-driven diversification in two widespread Galerida larks. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008 8: 32.

Sangster, G., J.M. Collinson, P.-A. Crochet, G.M. Kirwan, A.G. Knox, D.T. Parkin, and S.C. Votier. 2016b. Taxonomic recommendations for Western Palaearctic birds: 11th report. Ibis 158: 206-212.

page 528, Varied Tit  Sittiparus varius

Varied Tit Sittiparus varius is split into four species (McKay et al. 2014): Chestnut-bellied Tit Sittiparus castaneoventris; Iriomote Tit Sittiparus olivaceus; Varied Tit Sittiparus varius, which includes subspecies varius, sunsunpi, yajushimensis, amamii, orii, and namiyei; and Owston’s Tit Sittiparus owstoni. As a result, the polytypic group Varied Tit (Varied) Sittiparus varius [varius Group] is deleted.

Reference:

McKay, B.D., H.L. Mays Jr., C.T. Yao, D. Wan, H. Higuchi, and I. Nishiumi. 2014. Incorporating color into integrative taxonomy: analysis of the Varied Tit (Sittiparus varius) complex in East Asia. Systematic Biology 63: 505-517.

page 392, Plain Wren  Cantorchilus modestus

Plain Wren is split into three species, in accord with NACC (Chesser et al. 2016): Cabanis’s Wren Cantorchilus modestus, Canebrake Wren Cantorchilus zeledoni, and Isthmian Wren Cantorchilus elutus. This split is based on differences in vocalizations and on genetic divergence (Mann et al. 2003, Saucier et al. 2015). Each species is monotypic; subspecies roberti (with range “Caribbean lowlands of Honduras”) and vanrossemi (with range “Pacific lowlands of El Salvador”) are considered to be synonyms of modestus (Saucier et al. 2015). Revise the range of Cabanis’s Wren from “S Mexico (Oaxaca) to Guatemala and n Nicaragua” to “southern Mexico (Oaxaca) south on the Pacific slope to northwestern Costa Rica; locally on the Caribbean slope from southern Mexico (Chiapas) to Honduras.”

References:

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2016. Fifty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-list of North American birds. Auk 133: 544-560.

Mann, N.I., L. Marshall-Ball, and P.J.B. Slater. 2003. The complex song duet of the Plain Wren. Condor 105: 672–682.

Saucier, J.R., C. Sánchez, and M.D. Carling. 2015. Patterns of genetic and morphological divergence reveal a species complex in the Plain Wren (Cantorchilus modestus). Auk 132: 795-807.

page 396, Gray-breasted Wood-Wren  Henicorhina leucophrys

In accord with AOU-SACC (Proposal 700), the monotypic group Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (anachoreta) Henicorhina leucophrys anachoreta is elevated to species rank as Santa Marta Wood-Wren Henicorhina anachoreta. Our use of the English name “Santa Marta” is provisional, as AOU-SACC has not yet addressed this issue. “Santa Marta” already is in use for this species (McMullan and Donegan 2014), although note that Cadena et al. (2015) suggested the name Hermit Wood-Wren. Position Santa Marta Wood-Wren to follow Gray-breasted Wood-Wren.

References:

Cadena, C.D., L.M. Caro, P.C. Caycedo, A.M. Cuervo, R.C.K. Bowie, and H. Slabbekoorn. 2015. Henicorhina anachoreta (Troglodytidae), another endemic bird species for the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Ornitología Colombiana 15: 68-74.

McMullan, M., and T. Donegan. 2014. Field guide to the birds of Colombia. Second edition. Fundación ProAves de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia.

page 403, Plain-backed Thrush  Zoothera mollissima

Plain-backed Thrush Zoothera mollissima is split into three species, one of which is newly described: Alpine Thrush Zoothera mollissima; the newly described Himalayan Thrush Zoothera salimalii; and Sichuan Thrush Zoothera griseiceps (Alström et al. 2016). Subspecies whiteheadi is a junior synonym of mollissima, and is deleted; as a result, Alpine Thrush becomes monotypic. Revise the range description for Alpine Thrush from “E Himalayas to se Tibet; winters to Myanmar and Indochina” to “breeds in the Himalayas from northern Pakistan to southcentral China (Sichuan); winters at lower elevations, south to northern Myanmar and Yunnan (China).”

The range of Himalayan Thrush is “breeds in the eastern Himalayas from eastern Nepal to southcentral China (Sichuan and Yunnan); winter range poorly known, but reported from northeastern India to northern Vietnam (Tonkin)”.

Revise the range description of Sichuan Thrush from “SW China (Sichuan and Yunnan) to n Vietnam (Tonkin)” to “breeds southcentral China (central Sichuan); winter range poorly known, but reported from northern Vietnam (Tonkin)”.

Reference:

Alström, P., P.C. Rasmussen, C. Zhao, J. Xu, S. Dalvi, T. Cai, Y. Guan, R. Zhang, M.V. Kalyakin, F. Lei, and U. Olsson. 2016. Integrative taxonomy of the Plain‑backed Thrush (Zoothera mollissima) complex (Aves,Turdidae) reveals cryptic species, including a new species. Avian Research 7:1

page 646, Three-striped Warbler  Basileuterus tristriatus

Change the scientific name of the monotypic group Three-striped Warbler (Costa Rican) from Basileuterus tristriatus chitrensis to Basileuterus tristriatus melanotis (Wetmore et al. 1984). In accord with AOU-NACC (Chesser et al. 2016), this group is elevated to species rank as Costa Rican Warbler Basileuterus melanotis; this action is based “on differences in genetics and vocalizations (Gutiérrez-Pinto et al. 2012, Donegan 2014)” (Chesser et al. 2016).

In accord with AOU-NACC (Chesser et al. 2016), the monotypic group Three-striped Warbler (Tacarcuna) Basileuterus tristriatus tacarcunae also is elevated to species rank as Tacarcuna Warbler Basileuterus tacarcunae.

References:

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2016. Fifty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-list of North American birds. Auk 133: 544-560.

Donegan, T.M. 2014. Geographical variation in morphology and voice of Three-striped Warbler Basileuterus tristriatus. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 134: 79-109.

Gutiérrez-Pinto, N., A.M. Cuervo, J. Miranda, J.L. Pérez-Emán, R.T. Brumfield, and C.D. Cadena. 2012. Non-monophyly and deep genetic differentiation across low-elevation barriers in a Neotropical montane bird (Basileuterus tristriatus; Aves: Parulidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 64: 156-165.

Wetmore, A., R.F. Pasquier, and S.L. Olson. 1984. The birds of the Republic of Panamá. Part 4. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 150, Part 4.

SPECIES LOSSES (lumps and other deletions)

 page 69, Vietnam Partridge  Arborophila merlini

Vietnam Partridge is lumped with Scaly-breasted Partridge Arborophila chloropus (Davison 1992 Chen et al. 2015); the two subspecies change from Arborophila merlini merlini to Arborophila chloropus merlini and from Arborophila merlini vivida to Arborophila chloropus vivida. Position these two subspecies immediately following Arborophila chloropus tonkinensis.

References:

Chen, D., Y. Liu, G.W.H. Davison, L. Dong, J. Chang, S. Gao, S.-H. Li, and Z. Zhang. 2015. Revival of the genus Tropicoperdix Blyth 1859 (Phasianidae, Aves) using multilocus sequence data. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 175: 429-438.

Davison, G.W.H. 1992. Systematics within the genus Arborophila Hodgson. Federation Museums Journal 27: 125-134.

page 86, Caribbean Coot  Fulica caribaea

Caribbean Coot Fulica caribaea is lumped with American Coot Fulica americana, in accord with AOU-NACC (Chesser et al. 2016); this action is “based on evidence of non-assortative mating (McNair and Cramer-Burke 2006) and lack of diagnosable morphological (Roberson and Baptista 1988) or vocal (Bond 1961) differences” (Chesser et al. 2016). As AOU-NACC now treats caribaea as a junior synonym of americana, caribaea now longer is recognized as a valid taxon. Revise the range description of nominate americana from “Alaska to nw Costa Rica, Cuba, Jamaica and Grand Cayman I.” to “North America (southern Alaska south to northwestern Costa Rica), the Caribbean (Greater and Lesser Antilles), and northern South America (northern Venezuela).”

Reference:

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2016. Fifty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-list of North American birds. Auk 133: 544-560.

page 111, Forest Dove  Columba simplex

Forest Dove Columba simplex is lumped with Lemon Dove Columba larvata (Serle 1959, Urban et al. 1986). We recognize simplex as a monotypic group, Lemon Dove (Sao Tome) Columba larvata simplex. Position simplex immediately following the entry for Lemon Dove (Principe) Columba larvata principalis.

References:

Serle, W. 1959. The west African races of the Lemon-Dove Aplopelia larvata (Temm. and Knip). Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 79: 38-41.

Urban, E.K., C.H. Fry, and S. Keith. 1986. The birds of Africa. Volume II. Academic Press, London.

page 53, Barbary Falcon  Falco pelegrinoides

Barbary Falcon Falco pelegrinoides is lumped with Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) (White et al. 2013a, 2013b), although we continue to recognize this taxon as a monotypic group, Peregrine Falcon (Barbary) Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides. Reposition pelegrinoides to follow Peregrine Falcon (Mediterranean) Falco peregrinus brookei.

References:

White, C.M., T.J. Cade, and J.H. Enderson. 2013a. Peregrine Falcons of the world. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

White, C.M., S.A. Sonsthagen, G.K. Sage, C. Anderson, and S.L. Talbot. 2013b. Genetic relationships among some subspecies of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus L.), inferred from mitochondrial DNA control-region sequences. Auk 130: 78-87.

page 136, Port Lincoln Parrot  Barnardius zonarius

page 136, Mallee Ringneck  Barnardius barnardi

Port Lincoln Parrot Barnardius zonarius and Mallee Ringneck Barnardius barnardi are lumped as a single species, Australian Ringneck Barnardius zonarius (Schodde, in Schodde and Mason 1997, Christidis and Boles 2008).

Change the English name of the group Barnardius zonarius semitorquatus from Port Lincoln Parrot (Twenty-eight) to Australian Ringneck (Twenty-eight).

Change the English name of the group Port Lincoln Parrot (Port Lincoln) to Australian Ringneck (Port Lincoln). Subspecies occidentalis is considered to be a junior synonym of zonarius (Schodde, in Schodde and Mason 1997), and is deleted. Change the scientific name of the group Australian Ringneck (Port Lincoln) from Barnardius zonarius zonarius/occidentalis to Barnardius zonarius zonarius. Revise the range of zonarius from “W Australia to s-c Northern Territory and s-c South Australia” to “west central Western Australia east to south central Northern Territory and south central South Australia.”

Change the English name of the group Barnardius barnardi barnardi/whitei from Mallee Ringneck (Mallee) to Australian Ringneck (Mallee). Subspecies whitei is considered to apply to intergrades between Australian Ringneck (Port Lincoln) Barnardius zonarius zonarius and Australian Ringneck (Mallee) Barnardius zonarius barnardi, and not to a valid taxon (Schodde, in Schodde and Mason 1997), and is deleted. Change the scientific name of the group Australian Ringneck (Mallee) from Barnardius barnardi barnardi/whitei to Barnardius zonarius barnardi. Revise the range of barnardi from “Interior of se Australia (except in range of whitei)” to “interior of southeastern Australia.”

Change the English name of the monotypic group Mallee Ringneck (Cloncurry) to Australian Ringneck (Cloncurry), and the scientific name of this group from Barnardius barnardi macgillivrayi to Barnardius zonarius macgillivrayi.

References:

Christidis, L. and W.E. Boles. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

Schodde, R., and I.J. Mason. 1997. Aves (Columbidae to Coraciidae). Volume 37.2 in W.W.K. Houston and A. Wells (editors), Zoological Catalogue of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

page 267, Sulu Pitta  Erythropitta yairocho

page 267, Talaud Pitta  Erythropitta inspeculata

The poorly known Sulu Pitta Erythropitta yairocho is lumped with Blue-breasted Pitta Erythropitta erythrogaster (Collar et al. 2015), and becomes Pitta erythrogaster yairocho.

With the lump of Sulu Pitta into Blue-breasted Pitta, Talaud Pitta Erythropitta inspeculata then is embedded within Blue-breasted Pitta (Irestedt et al. 2013), and so it also is lumped with Blue-breasted. This subspecies retains recognition, however, as a monotypic group, Blue-breasted Pitta (Talaud) Erythropitta erythrogaster inspeculata.

References:

Collar, N.J., J. del Hoyo, and F. Jutglar. 2015. The number of species and subspecies in the Red-bellied Antpitta Erythropitta erythrogaster complex: a quantitative analysis of morphological characters. Forktail 31: 13-23.

Irestedt, M., P.-H. Fabre, H. Batalha-Filho, K.A. Jønsson, C.S. Roselaar, G. Sangster, and P.G.P. Ericson. 2013. The spatio-temporal colonization and diversification across the Indo-Pacific by a ‘great speciator’ (Aves, Erythropitta erythrogaster). Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280: 20130309.

page 267, Buru Pitta  Erythropitta rubrinucha

page 267, Seram Pitta  Erythropitta piroensis

Buru Pitta Erythropitta rubrinucha and Seram Pitta Erythropitta piroensis are lumped as South Moluccan Pitta Erythropitta rubrinucha (Collar et al. 2015).

Reference:

Collar, N.J., J. del Hoyo, and F. Jutglar. 2015. The number of species and subspecies in the Red-bellied Antpitta Erythropitta erythrogaster complex: a quantitative analysis of morphological characters. Forktail 31: 13-23.

page 267, Habenicht’s Pitta  Erythropitta habenichti

page 267, D’Entrecasteaux Pitta  Erythropitta finschii

Habenicht’s Pitta Erythropitta habenichti and D’Entrecasteaux Pitta Erythropitta finschii are lumped with Papuan Pitta Erythropitta macklotii, and become Erythropitta macklotii habenichti and Erythropitta macklotii finschii, respectively (Collar et al. 2015). Reposition Erythropitta macklotii habenichti to come between the species heading and Erythropitta macklotii macklotii. Reposition Erythropitta macklotii finschii to follow Erythropitta macklotii loriae.

Reference:

Collar, N.J., J. del Hoyo, and F. Jutglar. 2015. The number of species and subspecies in the Red-bellied Antpitta Erythropitta erythrogaster complex: a quantitative analysis of morphological characters. Forktail 31: 13-23.

page addition (2013), Roosevelt Antwren  Epinecrophylla dentei

Roosevelt Antwren Epinecrophylla dentei is a recently described species (Whitney et al. 2013) that was added, provisionally, to eBird/Clements Checklist 6.8, pending review by AOU-SACC of this proposed new species. Based on current information, AOU-SACC has voted to not recognize dentei as a species (AOU-SACC Proposal 589), opting instead to consider dentei as a subspecies of the recently split Madeira Antwren Epinecrophylla amazonica. Consequently we follow AOU-SACC in treating dentei as a subspecies, although we recognize it as a monotypic group, Madeira Antwren (Roosevelt) Epinecrophylla amazonica dentei.

Reference:

Whitney, B.M., M.L. Isler, G.A. Bravo, N. Aristizábal, F. Schunck, L.F. Silveira, and V. de Q. Piacentini. 2013.   A new species of Epinecrophylla antwren from the Aripuanã-Machado interfluvium in central Amazonian Brazil with revision of the “stipple-throated antwren” complex. Pages 263-267 in J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, and D. Christie (editors), Handbook of the birds of the world. Special volume. New species and global index. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

page 586, Sanford’s Bowerbird  Archboldia sanfordi

Sanford’s Bowerbird Archboldia sanfordi is lumped with Archbold’s Bowerbird Archboldia papuensis (Frith et al. 1995, Beehler and Pratt 2016), and becomes Archboldia papuensis sanfordi.

References:

Beehler, B.M., and T.K. Pratt. 2016. Birds of New Guinea: distribution, taxonomy, and systematics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Frith, C.B., D. Gibbs, and K. Turner. 1995. The taxonomic status of populations of Archbold’s Bowerbird Archboldia papuensis in New Guinea. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 115: 109-114.

SPECIES RATIFICATION

addition (2013), Western Puffbird  Nystalus obamai

We provisionally added Western Puffbird Nystalus obamai to the eBird/Clements Checklist 6.8 (August 2013), although at that time this proposed new species had not yet been accepted by AOU-SACC. Ratification of this species was accomplished in AOU-SACC Proposal 679. Change the English name from Western Puffbird to Western Striolated-Puffbird, following AOU-SACC Proposal 701. Reposition Western Striolated-Puffbird to precede, rather than follow, Eastern Striolated-Puffbird Nystalus striolatus.

addition (2013), Chico’s Tyrannulet  Zimmerius chicomendesi

We provisionally added Chico’s Tyrannulet Zimmerius chicomendesi to the eBird/Clements Checklist 6.8 (August 2013), although at that time this proposed new species had not yet been accepted by AOU-SACC. Ratification of this species was accomplished in AOU-SACC Proposal 698.

ORDERS AND FAMILIES

ORDERS (newly recognized orders)

page 74, Cuculiformes   Opisthocomidae (Hoatzin)

The enigmatic Hoatzin is removed from Cuculiformes and is placed in a newly recognized order, Opisthocomiformes (Cracraft 2013, Winkler et al. 2015). The phylogenetic affinities of Hoatzin have been difficult to resolve, but it may be basal to a large assemblage of clades of landbird (Prum et al. 2015). For the moment, we follow AOU-SACC in positioning Hoatzin between Columbiformes and Cuculiformes.

References:

Cracraft, J. 2013. Avian higher-level relationships and classification: nonpasserines. Pages xxi-xliii in E.C. Dickinson and J.V. Remsen, Jr. (editors), The Howard & Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world. Fourth edition. Volume 1. Aves Press, Eastbourne, United Kingdom.

Prum, R.O., J.S. Berv, A. Dornburg, D.J. Field, J.P. Townsend, E.M. Lemmon, and A.R. Lemmon. 2015. A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing. Nature 526: 569-573.

Winkler, D.W., S.M. Billerman, and I.J. Lovette. 2015. Bird families of the world. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

ORDERS (lumps and other deletions)

pages 184-191, Apodiformes  Apodidae (Swifts)

page 191, Apodiformes  Hemiprocnidae (Treeswifts)

pages 191-211, Apodiformes  Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)

Genetic evidence consistently indicates that Apodiformes are embedded within Caprimulgiformes (Hackett et al. 2008, Prum et al. 2015). Among the nomenclatural solutions to this revelation, one option is to preserve Apodiformes, by raising each of the families of Caprimulgiformes to the level of order. This route recently was enacted by AOU-NACC (Chesser et al. 2016; see also AOU-SACC Proposal 703). Another solution is to subsume Apodiformes into an expanded Caprimulgiformes (Cracraft 2013, Winkler et al. 2015). We have adopted the latter approach: we delete Apodiformes, and include its three families – Apodidae, Hemiprocnidae, and Trochilidae – in Caprimulgiformes.

References:

Cracraft, J. 2013. Avian higher-level relationships and classification: nonpasserines. Pages xxi-xliii in E.C. Dickinson and J.V. Remsen, Jr. (editors), The Howard & Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world. Fourth edition. Volume 1. Aves Press, Eastbourne, United Kingdom.

Hackett, S.J., R.T. Kimball, S. Reddy, R.C.K. Bowie, E.L. Braun, M.J. Braun, J.L. Chojnowski, W.A. Cox, K.-L. Han, J. Harshman, C.J. Huddleston, B.D. Marks, K.J. Miglia, W.S. Moore, F.H. Sheldon, D.W. Steadman, C.C. Witt, and T. Yuri. 2008. A phylogenomic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science 320: 1763-1768.

Prum, R.O., J.S. Berv, A. Dornburg, D.J. Field, J.P. Townsend, E.M. Lemmon, and A.R. Lemmon. 2015. A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing. Nature 526: 569-573.

Winkler, D.W., S.M. Billerman, and I.J. Lovette. 2015. Bird families of the world. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 FAMILIES (newly recognized families)

Eulacestomatidae (Ploughbill)

page 488, Wattled Ploughbill  Eulacestoma nigropectus

The enigmatic Wattled Ploughbill is removed from Pachycephalidae (Whistlers and Allies) and is recognized as a new monotypic family, Eulacestomatidae (Ploughbill) (Jønsson et al. 2011, 2016, Aggerbeck et al. 2014, Schodde and Christidis 2014).

References:

Aggerbeck, M., J. Fjeldså, L. Christidis, P.-H. Fabre, and K.A. Jønsson. 2014. Resolving deep lineage divergences in core corvoid passerine birds supports a proto-Papuan island origin. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 70: 272-285.

Jønsson, K.A., P.-H. Fabre, R.E. Ricklefs, and J. Fjeldså. 2011. Major global radiation of corvoid birds originated in the proto-Papuan archipelago. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 108: 2328–2333.

Jønsson, K.A., P.-H. Fabre, J.D. Kennedy, B.G. Holt, M.K. Borregaard, C. Rahbek, and J. Fjeldså. 2016. A supermatrix phylogeny of corvoid passerine birds (Aves: Corvides). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 94: 87–94.

Schodde, R., and L. Christidis. 2014. Relicts from Tertiary Australasia: undescribed families and subfamilies of songbirds (Passeriformes) and their zoogeographic signal. Zootaxa 3786: 501-522.

Falcunculidae (Shrike-tit)

page 483, Crested Shrike-tit  Falcunculus frontatus

Crested Shrike-tit is removed from Pachycephalidae (Whistlers and Allies) and is recognized as a new monotypic family, Falcunculidae (Shrike-tit) (Jønsson et al. 2011, 2016, Aggerbeck et al. 2014).

References:

Aggerbeck, M., J. Fjeldså, L. Christidis, P.-H. Fabre, and K.A. Jønsson. 2014. Resolving deep lineage divergences in core corvoid passerine birds supports a proto-Papuan island origin. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 70: 272-285.

Jønsson, K.A., P.-H. Fabre, R.E. Ricklefs, and J. Fjeldså. 2011. Major global radiation of corvoid birds originated in the proto-Papuan archipelago. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 108: 2328–2333.

Jønsson, K.A., P.-H. Fabre, J.D. Kennedy, B.G. Holt, M.K. Borregaard, C. Rahbek, and J. Fjeldså. 2016. A supermatrix phylogeny of corvoid passerine birds (Aves: Corvides). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 94: 87–94.

Rhagologidae (Mottled Berryhunter)

page 483, Mottled Berryhunter  Rhagologus leucostigma

Mottled Berryhunter is removed from Pachycephalidae (Whistlers and Allies) and is recognized as a new monotypic family, Rhagologidae (Mottled Berryhunter) (Jønsson et al. 2011, 2016, Aggerbeck et al. 2014, Schodde and Christidis 2014).

References:

Aggerbeck, M., J. Fjeldså, L. Christidis, P.-H. Fabre, and K.A. Jønsson. 2014. Resolving deep lineage divergences in core corvoid passerine birds supports a proto-Papuan island origin. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 70: 272-285.

Jønsson, K.A., P.-H. Fabre, R.E. Ricklefs, and J. Fjeldså. 2011. Major global radiation of corvoid birds originated in the proto-Papuan archipelago. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 108: 2328–2333.

Jønsson, K.A., P.-H. Fabre, J.D. Kennedy, B.G. Holt, M.K. Borregaard, C. Rahbek, and J. Fjeldså. 2016. A supermatrix phylogeny of corvoid passerine birds (Aves: Corvides). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 94: 87–94.

Schodde, R., and L. Christidis. 2014. Relicts from Tertiary Australasia: undescribed families and subfamilies of songbirds (Passeriformes) and their zoogeographic signal. Zootaxa 3786: 501-522.

Ifritidae (Ifrita)

page 514, Blue-capped Ifrita  Ifrita kowaldi

Blue-capped Ifrita is removed from Monarchidae (Monarch Flycatchers) and is recognized as a new monotypic family, Ifritidae (Ifrita) (Jønsson et al. 2011, 2016, Aggerbeck et al. 2014, Schodde and Christidis).

References:

Aggerbeck, M., J. Fjeldså, L. Christidis, P.-H. Fabre, and K.A. Jønsson. 2014. Resolving deep lineage divergences in core corvoid passerine birds supports a proto-Papuan island origin. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 70: 272-285.

Jønsson, K.A., P.-H. Fabre, R.E. Ricklefs, and J. Fjeldså. 2011. Major global radiation of corvoid birds originated in the proto-Papuan archipelago. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 108: 2328–2333.

Jønsson, K.A., P.-H. Fabre, J.D. Kennedy, B.G. Holt, M.K. Borregaard, C. Rahbek, and J. Fjeldså. 2016. A supermatrix phylogeny of corvoid passerine birds (Aves: Corvides). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 94: 87–94.

Schodde, R., and L. Christidis. 2014. Relicts from Tertiary Australasia: undescribed families and subfamilies of songbirds (Passeriformes) and their zoogeographic signal. Zootaxa 3786: 501-522.

Melampittidae (Melampittas)         

page 585, Lesser Melampitta  Melampitta lugubris

page 585, Greater Melampitta Melampitta gigantea

The two species of melampitta removed from Paradisaeidae (Birds-of-Paradise) and are recognized as a new family, Melampittidae (Melampittas) (Jønsson et al. 2011, 2016, Aggerbeck et al. 2014, Schodde and Christidis 2014).

References:

Aggerbeck, M., J. Fjeldså, L. Christidis, P.-H. Fabre, and K.A. Jønsson. 2014. Resolving deep lineage divergences in core corvoid passerine birds supports a proto-Papuan island origin. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 70: 272-285.

Jønsson, K.A., P.-H. Fabre, R.E. Ricklefs, and J. Fjeldså. 2011. Major global radiation of corvoid birds originated in the proto-Papuan archipelago. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 108: 2328–2333.

Jønsson, K.A., P.-H. Fabre, J.D. Kennedy, B.G. Holt, M.K. Borregaard, C. Rahbek, and J. Fjeldså. 2016. A supermatrix phylogeny of corvoid passerine birds (Aves: Corvides). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 94: 87–94.

Schodde, R., and L. Christidis. 2014. Relicts from Tertiary Australasia: undescribed families and subfamilies of songbirds (Passeriformes) and their zoogeographic signal. Zootaxa 3786: 501-522.

FAMILIES (lumps and other deletions)

 page 2, Dromaiidae  (Emu)

The family Dromaiidae (Emu) is merged into the family Casuariidae (Cassowaries) Christidis and Boles 2008, Hackett et al. 2008, Dickinson and Remsen 2013, Prum et al. 2015). Change the English name of Casuariidae from Cassowaries to Cassowaries and Emu.

References:

Christidis, L. and W.E. Boles. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

Dickinson, E.C., and J.V. Remsen, Jr. (editors). 2013. The Howard & Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world. Fourth edition. Volume 1. Aves Press, Eastbourne, United Kingdom.

Hackett, S.J., R.T. Kimball, S. Reddy, R.C.K. Bowie, E.L. Braun, M.J. Braun, J.L. Chojnowski, W.A. Cox, K.-L. Han, J. Harshman, C.J. Huddleston, B.D. Marks, K.J. Miglia, W.S. Moore, F.H. Sheldon, D.W. Steadman, C.C. Witt, and T. Yuri. 2008. A phylogenomic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history.             Science 320: 1763-1768.

Prum, R.O., J.S. Berv, A. Dornburg, D.J. Field, J.P. Townsend, E.M. Lemmon, and A.R. Lemmon. 2015. A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing. Nature 526: 569-573.

page 14, Pelecanoididae  (Diving-Petrels)

In accord with AOU-SACC (Proposal 687), the family Pelecanoididae (Diving-Petrels) is merged into the family Procellariidae (Shearwaters and Petrels). This change in status is based on the results of several phylogenetic studies, most recently Prum et al. (2015), indicating that diving-petrels are embedded within Procellariidae; see Proposal 687 for a brief survey of this research. Provisionally, the four species of diving-petrels are placed at the end of Procellariidae.

Reference:

Prum, R.O., J.S. Berv, A. Dornburg, D.J. Field, J.P. Townsend, E.M. Lemmon, and A.R. Lemmon. 2015. A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing. Nature 526: 569-573.

STANDARD UPDATES and CORRECTIONS

 Documentation for the website of further updates and corrections still is in preparation, but will be posted here as soon as this compilation is complete; of course, all changes already are documented in the eBird/Clements Checklistv2016 spreadsheet.

GROUPS

GROUPS – newly created groups

Brown Tinamou (castaneus) Crypturellus obsoletus castaneus

Brown Tinamou (Brown) Crypturellus obsoletus [obsoletus Group]

White-capped Albatross (cauta) Thalassarche cauta cauta

White-capped Albatross (steadi) Thalassarche cauta steadi

Little Egret (Australasian) Egretta garzetta nigripes

Gray-cowled Wood-Rail (Gray-cowled) Aramides cajaneus cajaneus

Gray-cowled Wood-Rail (Gray-backed) Aramides cajaneus avicenniae

Eurasian Oystercatcher (Western) Haematopus ostralegus ostralegus/longipes

Eurasian Oystercatcher (Far Eastern) Haematopus ostralegus osculans

Whimbrel (Steppe) Numenius phaeopus alboaxillaris

Lemon Dove (Sao Tome) Columba larvata simplex

Gray-green Fruit-Dove (chrysogaster) Ptilinopus purpuratus chrysogaster

Gray-green Fruit-Dove (purpuratus/frater) Ptilinopus purpuratus purpuratus/frater

Oriental Scops-Owl (Oriental) Otus sunia [sunia Group]

Oriental Scops-Owl (Walden’s) Otus sunia modestus

Southern Boobook (Roti) Ninox novaeseelandiae rotiensis

Southern Boobook (Timor) Ninox novaeseelandiae fusca

Southern Boobook (Alor) Ninox novaeseelandiae plesseni

Southern Boobook (Red) Ninox novaeseelandiae lurida

Band-winged Nightjar (Rufous-naped) Systellura longirostris ruficervix

Band-winged Nightjar (atripunctata) Systellura longirostris atripunctata

Band-winged Nightjar (Austral) Systellura longirostris bifasciata/patagonica

Band-winged Nightjar (longirostris) Systellura longirostris longirostris

Band-rumped Swift (aetherodroma) Chaetura spinicaudus aetherodroma

Band-rumped Swift (spinicaudus/latirostris) Chaetura spinicaudus spinicaudus/latirostris

Band-rumped Swift (aethalea) Chaetura spinicaudus aethalea

Gray-rumped Swift (phaeopygos) Chaetura cinereiventris phaeopygos

Gray-rumped Swift (occidentalis) Chaetura cinereiventris occidentalis

Speckled Hummingbird (melanogenys Group) Adelomyia melanogenys [melanogenys Group]

Speckled Hummingbird (maculata) Adelomyia melanogenys maculata

Speckled Hummingbird (inornata) Adelomyia melanogenys inornata

Indian Roller (Indian) Coracias benghalensis benghalensis/indicus

Indian Roller (Black-billed) Coracias benghalensis affinis

Red-breasted Sapsucker (ruber) Sphyrapicus ruber ruber

Red-breasted Sapsucker (daggetti) Sphyrapicus ruber daggetti

Crimson-breasted Woodpecker (Scarlet-breasted) Dendrocopos cathpharius [cathpharius Group]

Crimson-breasted Woodpecker (Crimson-breasted) Dendrocopos cathpharius [pernyii Group]

White-backed Woodpecker (Lilford’s) Dendrocopos leucotos lilfordi

White-backed Woodpecker (White-backed) Dendrocopos leucotos [leucotos Group]

White-backed Woodpecker (Amami) Dendrocopos leucotos owstoni

Eurasian Three-toed Woodpecker (Eurasian) Picoides tridactylus [tridactylus Group]

Eurasian Three-toed Woodpecker (Dark-bodied) Picoides tridactylus funebris

Black-rumped Flameback (Black-rumped) Dinopium benghalense [benghalense Group]

Black-rumped Flameback (Red-backed) Dinopium benghalense psarodes

Greater Flameback (Malabar) Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus socialis

Greater Flameback (Greater) Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus [guttacristatus Group]

Peregrine Falcon (Barbary) Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides

Blue-breasted Pitta (Blue-breasted) Erythropitta erythrogaster [erythrogaster Group]

Blue-breasted Pitta (Talaud) Erythropitta erythrogaster inspeculata

Madeira Antwren (Madeira) Epinecrophylla amazonica amazonica

Madeira Antwren (Roosevelt) Epinecrophylla amazonica dentei

Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (Northern) Phaeomyias murina incomta/eremonoma

Vermilion Flycatcher (Northern) Pyrocephalus rubinus [mexicanus Group]

Vermilion Flycatcher (saturatus) Pyrocephalus rubinus saturatus

Vermilion Flycatcher (obscurus Group) Pyrocephalus rubinus [obscurus Group]

Vermilion Flycatcher (San Cristobal) Pyrocephalus rubinus dubius

Sooty-crowned Flycatcher (phaeocephalus) Myiarchus phaeocephalus phaeocephalus

Sooty-crowned Flycatcher (interior) Myiarchus phaeocephalus interior

Cardinal Myzomela (Loyalty) Myzomela cardinalis lifuensis

Cardinal Myzomela (Cardinal) Myzomela cardinalis [cardinalis Group]

Cardinal Myzomela (Samoan) Myzomela cardinalis nigriventris

Silktail (Taveuni) Lamprolia victoriae victoriae

Silktail (Natewa) Lamprolia victoriae klinesmithi

Blyth’s Paradise-Flycatcher (Blyth’s) Terpsiphone affinis [affinis Group]

Blyth’s Paradise-Flycatcher (Lesser Sundas) Terpsiphone affinis floris/sumbaensis

Fiji Shrikebill (Manua) Clytorhynchus vitiensis powelli

Fiji Shrikebill (Fiji) Clytorhynchus vitiensis [vitiensis Group]

Fiji Shrikebill (Fortuna) Clytorhynchus vitiensis fortunae

Fiji Shrikebill (Dusky) Clytorhynchus vitiensis keppeli

Black-and-white Monarch (Solomons) Symposiachrus barbatus barbatus

Black-and-white Monarch (White-cheeked) Symposiachrus barbatus malaitae

Blanford’s Lark (blanfordi) Calandrella blanfordi blanfordi

Blanford’s Lark (eremica/daaroodensis) Calandrella blandfordi eremica/daaroodensis

Black-throated Tit (Red-headed) Aegithalos concinnus iredalei

White-breasted Wood-Wren (Choco) Henicorhina leucosticta inornata/eucharis

Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (hilaris) Henicorhina leucophrys hilaris

Light-vented Bulbul (sinensis) Pycnonotus sinensis sinensis

Light-vented Bulbul (hainanus) Pycnonotus sinensis hainanus

Light-vented Bulbul (formosae/orii) Pycnonotus sinensis formosae/orii

Flavescent Bulbul (Flavescent) Pycnonotus flavescens [flavescens Group]

Flavescent Bulbul (Pale-faced) Pycnonotus flavescens leucops

Black Bulbul (psaroides Group) Hypsipetes leucocephalus [psaroides Group]

Black Bulbul (Black) Hypsipetes leucocephalus sinensis/ambiens

Black Bulbul (leucocephalus Group) Hypsipetes leucocephalus [leucocephalus Group]

Black Bulbul (perniger) Hypsipetes leucocephalus perniger

Black Bulbul (Gray-winged) Hypsipetes leucocephalus nigerrimus

Japanese White-eye (Japanese) Zosterops japonicus [japonicus Group]

Japanese White-eye (simplex/haianus) Zosterops japonicus simplex/haianus

Coral-billed Scimitar-Babbler (Black-crowned) Pomatorhinus ferruginosus ferruginosus

Coral-billed Scimitar-Babbler (Phayre’s) Pomatorhinus ferruginosus phayrei/stanfordi

Coral-billed Scimitar-Babbler (albogularis Group) Pomatorhinus ferruginosus [albogularis Group]

Spotted Flycatcher (Spotted) Muscicapa striata [striata Group]

Spotted Flycatcher (Mediterranean) Muscicapa striata tyrrhenica/balearica

Blue Rock-Thrush (pandoo) Monticola solitarius pandoo

Black-billed Thrush (Drab) Turdus ignobilis [ignobilis Group]

Black-billed Thrush (Amazonian) Turdus ignobilis debilis

Black-billed Thrush (Campina) Turdus ignobilis arthuri

Polynesian Starling (Polynesian) Aplonis tabuensis [tabuensis Group]

Polynesian Starling (Manua) Aplonis tabuensis manuae

Thick-billed Flowerpecker (obsoletum Group) Dicaeum agile [obsoletum Group]

Citrine Wagtail (Gray-backed) Motacilla citreola citreola/werae

Citrine Wagtail (Black-backed) Motacilla citreola calcarata

Water Pipit (Western) Anthus spinoletta spinoletta

Water Pipit (Caucasian) Anthus spinoletta coutellii

Water Pipit (Blakiston’s) Anthus spinoletta blakistoni

Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch (septentrionalis) Geospiza difficilis septentrionalis

Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch (acutirostris) Geospiza difficilis acutirostris

Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch (difficilis) Geospiza difficilis difficilis

Large Cactus-Finch (darwinii) Geospiza conirostris darwinii

Large Cactus-Finch (conirostris) Geospiza conirostris conirostris

Large Cactus-Finch (propinqua) Geospiza conirostris propinqua

Black-faced Bunting (spodocephala/sordida) Emberiza spodocephala spodocephala/sordida

Black-faced Bunting (personata) Emberiza spodocephala personata

Yellow-mantled Widowbird (Yellow-shouldered) Euplectes macroura macrocercus

Yellow-mantled Widowbird (Yellow-mantled) Euplectes macroura macroura/conradsi

Black-throated Finch (Black-rumped) Poephila cincta atropygialis

Black-throated Finch (White-rumped) Poephila cincta cincta

Chestnut Munia (Chestnut) Lonchura atricapilla [atricapilla Group]

Chestnut Munia (formosana) Lonchura atricapilla formosana