Clements Checklist

Updates & Corrections – August 2017

2017 UPDATES and CORRECTIONS, to accompany the eBird/Clements Checklistv2017 spreadsheet
Posted 15 August 2017

The Updates and Corrections are grouped into four sections. Within each section, items are listed in the order in which they are encountered in the eBird/Clements Checklistv2017 spreadsheet, although we also continue to reference by page number the relevant entry in the last published edition of the Clements Checklist (6th, 2007).

The four sections are

Species – gains and losses   (posted 17 August 2017)

Orders and Families – gains, losses, and changes to order or family composition or nomenclature   (posted 17 August 2017)

Standard Updates and Correction – all other changes, listed in sequence as they occur in the spreadsheet   (in progress – will be posted as soon as this documentation is available)

Groups – a list of new groups   (posted 17 August 2017)

SPECIES

SPECIES GAINS (splits and newly recognized species)

 page 69, Gray-breasted Partridge  Arborophila orientalis

Gray-breasted Partrige Arborophila orientalis is split into four monotypic species, following Mees (1996): Malaysian Partridge Arborophila campbelli; Roll’s Partridge Arborophila rolli; Sumatran Partridge Arborophila sumatrana; and Gray-breasted Partridge Arborophila orientalis.

Reference:

Mees, G.F. 1996. Geographical variation in birds of Java. Publications of the Nuttall Ornithological Club number 26. Cambridge, Massachusetts.

 

page 39, Northern Harrier  Circus cyaneus

In accord with AOS-NACC (Chesser et al. 2017), Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus is split into two monotypic species: Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus, of the Old World, and Northern Harrier Circus hudsonius, of North America. This split is based on “differences in morphology, plumage, and breeding habitat (Grant 1983, Thorpe 1988, Dobson and Clarke 2011, Etherington and Mobley 2016) commensurate with differences between other recognized species of Circus” (Chesser et al. 2017).

References:

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Auk 134: 751-773.

Dobson, A.D.M., and M.L. Clarke. 2011. Inconsistency in the taxonomy of Hen and Northern harriers: causes and consequences. British Birds 104: 192–201.

Etherington, G.J., and J.A. Mobley. 2016. Molecular phylogeny, morphology and life-history comparisons within Circus cyaneus reveal the presence of two distinct evolutionary lineages. Avian Research 7: 17.

Grant, P.J. 1983. The ‘Marsh Hawk’ problem. British Birds 76: 373–376.

Thorpe, J.P. 1988. Juvenile Hen Harriers showing ‘Marsh Hawk” characters. British Birds 81: 377–382.

 

page (addition 2017), Tanna Ground-Dove  Alopecoenas ferrugineus

The validity of Tanna Ground-Dove Alopecoenas ferrugineus formerly was questioned (Peters 1937), but this species now is widely accepted (Stresemann 1950, Greenway 1958, Dutson 2011). Insert this species, with range “Formerly Tanna Island (Vanuatu). Extinct; not reported since 1774”, immediately following Thick-billed Ground-Dove Alopecoenas salamonis.

References:

Dutson, G. 2011. Birds of Melanesia. The Bismarcks, Solomons, Vanuatu and New Caledonia. Christopher Helm, London.

Greenway, J.C., Jr. 1958. Extinct and vanishing birds of the world. Special Publication number 13. American Committee for International Wild Life Protection, New York, New York.

Peters, J.L. 1937. Check-list of birds of the world. Volume III. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Stresemann, E. 1950. Birds collected during Capt. James Cook’s last expedition (1776-1780). Auk 67: 66-88.

 

page (addition 2017), Norfolk Ground-Dove  Alopecoenas norfolkensis

The status of Norfolk Ground-Dove Alopecoenas norfolkensis formerly was confused (Peters 1937), but this species now is widely accepted as valid (Goodwin 1970, Gill et al. 2010, Forshaw 2015). Insert this species, with range “Formerly Norfolk Island (Australia). Extinct since ca 1800”, immediately following White-throated Ground-Dove Alopecoenas xanthonurus.

References:

Forshaw, J.M. 2015. Pigeons and doves in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Clayton South, Victoria, Australia.

Gill, B.J., B.D. Bell, C.K. Chambers, D.G. Medway, R.L. Palma, R.P. Scofield, A.J.D. Tennyson, and T.H. Worthy (Checklist Committee, Ornithological Society of New Zealand). 2010. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Te Papa Press and the Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand.

Goodwin, D. 1970. Pigeons and doves of the world. Second edition. British Museum (Natural History), London and Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.

Peters, J.L. 1937. Check-list of birds of the world. Volume III. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

 

page 185, Glossy Swiftlet  Collocalia esculenta

Glossy Swiftlet Collocalia esculenta is split into multiple species, and the sequence of species of Collocalia swiftlets is revised. following Rheindt et al. (2017):

Subspecies Collocalia esculenta natalis is elevated to species rank as a monotypic Christmas Island Swiftlet Collocalia natalis.

Subspecies affinis, elachyptera, cyanoptila, vanderbilti, and oberholseri are removed from Glossy Swiftlet and are recognized as Plume-toed Swiftlet Collocalia affinis.

Subspecies marginata and septentrionalis are removed from Glossy Swiftlet and are recognized as Gray-rumped Swiftlet Collocalia marginata.

Subspecies isonota and bagobo are removed from Glossy Swiftlet, and are recognized as Ridgetop Swiftlet Collocalia isonota.

We recognize Tenggara Swiftlet Collocalia sumbawae, which includes subspecies sumbawae and a newly described subspecies, sumbae. Revise the range description of nominate sumbawae from “W Lesser Sundas (Sumbawa, Sumba, Flores and Besar)” to “western Lesser Sundas (Sumbawa; population on Flores and Besar possibly also this subspecies)”. Following sumbawae, insert newly described sumbae Schodde, Rheindt, and Christidis 2017, with range “western Lesser Sundas (Sumba)”.

Subspecies neglecta and perneglecta are removed from Glossy Swiftlet, and are recognized as Drab Swiftlet Collocalia neglecta. Revise the range description of nominate neglecta from “E Lesser Sundas (Roti, Dao, Semau, Timor and Jaco)” to “Lesser Sundas (Sawu, Roti, Semau, and Timor)”. Revise the range description of subspecies perneglecta from “Alor, Sawu, Wetar, Kisar, Romang, Damar and Tanimbar is.” to “Lesser Sundas (Alor, Wetar, and Kisar); populations on Romang, Damar and Tanimbar possibly introgressant with Glossy Swiftlet”.

Subspecies uropygialis and albidior are removed from Glossy Swiftlet, and are recognized as Satin Swiftlet Collocalia uropygialis.

Additionally, subspecies Collocalia esculenta erwini, with range “High mountains of w New Guinea”, is condidered to be a junior synonym of nitens (Beehler and Pratt 2016, Rheindt et al. 2017), and is deleted. Revise the range description of subspecies nitens from “Lowlands of New Guinea and w Papuan islands” to “New Guinea, western Papuan Islands, Yapen, and Karker”. Following Rheindt et al. (2017), we recognize subspecies heinrothi Neumann 1919, previously considered to be a junior synomym of stresemanni (Peters 1940). Insert heinrothi immediately following subspecies stresemanni; the range of heinrothi is “Bismarck Archipelago (New Hanover, Nusa, New Ireland, and Djaul)”. Subspecies kalili, with range “Bismarck Arch. (New Ireland, New Hanover and Dyaul)”, is considered to be a junior synomym of heinrothi (Dickinson and Remsen 2013, Rheindt et al. 2017), and is deleted. Following subspecies tametamele, insert a newly described subspecies, lagonoleucos Schodde, Rheindt, and Christidis 2017, with range “northwestern Solomon Islands (Buka and Bougainville; identify of population on Shortland not determined, but possibly this subspecies)” (Rheindt et al. 2017). Revise the range description of nominate esculenta from “S Moluccas, s Sulawesi, Banggai and Sula islands” to “central and southern Sulawesi, Banggai and Sula islands, South Moluccas  (to Kai Islands), and Aru Islands”. As a result of all of these changes, Glossy Swiftlet now consists of the following subspecies: spilura, manadensis, esculenta, minuta, amethystina, numforensis, nitens, misimae, stresemanni, heinrothi, spilogaster, hypogrammica, tametamele, lagonoleucos, becki, makirensis, and desiderata.

References:

Beehler, B.M., and T.K. Pratt. 2016. Birds of New Guinea: distribution, taxonomy, and systematics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Dickinson, E.C., and J.V. Remsen, Jr. (editors). 2013. The Howard & Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world. Fourth edition. Volume 1. Aves Press, Eastbourne, United Kingdom.

Peters, J.L. 1940. Check-list of birds of the world. Volume IV. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Rheindt, F.E., L. Christidis, J.A. Norman, J.A. Eaton, K.R. Sadanandan, and R. Schodde. 2017. Speciation in Indo-Pacific swiftlets (Aves: Apodidae): integrating molecular and phenotypic data for a new provisional taxonomy of the Collocalia esculenta complex. Zootaxa 4250: 401-433.

 

page 204, Magnificent Hummingbird  Eugenes fulgens

In accord with AOS-NACC (Chesser et al. 2017), Magnificent Hummingbird Eugenes fulgens is split into two species: Rivoli’s Hummingbird Eugenes fulgens, and Talamanca Hummingbird Eugenes spectabilis. This action is based on an assessment of the degree of plumage differences between them. A phylogenetic survey by Zamudio-Beltrán and Hernández-Baños (2015) also revealed a genetic divergence between Rivoli’s and Talamanca hummingbirds.

References:

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Auk 134: 751-773.

Zamudio-Beltrán, L.E., and B.E. Hernández-Baños. 2015. A multilocus analysis provides evidence for more than one species within Eugenes fulgens (Aves: Trochilidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 90: 80-84.

 

page 240, Emerald Toucanet  Aulacorhynchus prasinus

In accord with AOS-NACC (Chesser et al. 2017), Emerald Toucanet Aulacorhynchus prasinus is split into two species: Northern Emerald-Toucanet Aulacorhynchus prasinus, which includes subspecies wagleri, prasinus, warneri, virescens, volcanius, maxillaris, caeruleogularis, and cognatus; and Southern Emerald-Toucanet Aulacorhynchus albivitta, which includes subspecies lautus, griseigularis, albivitta, phaeolaemus, dimidiatus, and cyanolaemus. This split is based on “differences in phenotype and genetic results consistent with those differences (Puebla-Olivares et al. 2008, Bonaccorso et al. 2011, Winker 2016)” (Chesser et al. 2017).

Within Northern Emerald-Toucanet, change the English name of the monotypic group Aulacorhynchus prasinus wagleri from Emerald Toucanet (Wagler’s) to Northern Emerald-Toucanet (Wagler’s). Change the English name of the polytypic group Aulacorhynchus prasinus [prasinus Group] from Emerald Toucanet (Emerald) to Northern Emerald-Toucanet (Emerald). Subspecies stenorhabdus, with range “Subtropical s Mexico to w Guatemala and n El Salvador”, and subspecies chiapensis, with range “Mts. of extreme s Mexico (Mt. Ovando, Chiapas)”, both are considered to be junior synonyms of virescens (Peters 1948, Monroe 1968), and are deleted. Revise the range description of virescens from “SE Mexico (Chiapas) to Honduras and Nicaragua” to “southeastern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, western El Salvador, Honduras, and northern Nicaragua”. Change the English name of the polytypic group Aulacorhynchus prasinus caeruleogularis/maxillaris from Emerald Toucanet (Blue-throated) to Northern Emerald-Toucanet (Blue-throated). Change the English name of the monotypic group Aulacorhynchus prasinus cognatus from Emerald Toucanet (Violet-throated) to Northern Emerald-Toucanet (Violet-throated).

Within Southern Emerald-Toucanet, change the names of the monotypic group Emerald Toucanet (Santa Marta) Aulacorhynchus prasinus lautus to Southern Emerald-Toucanet (Santa Marta) Aulacorhynchus albivitta lautus. Change the names of the monotypic group Emerald Toucanet (Gray-throated) Aulacorhynchus prasinus griseigularis to Southern Emerald-Toucanet (Gray-throated) Aulacorhynchus albivitta griseigularis. Change the names of the polytypic group Emerald Toucanet (Andean) Aulacorhynchus prasinus albivitta/phaeolaemus to Southern Emerald-Toucanet (Andean) Aulacorhynchus albivitta albivitta/phaeolaemus. Change the names of the polytypic group Emerald Toucanet (Black-throated) Aulacorhynchus prasinus [atrogularis Group] to Southern Emerald-Toucanet (Black-throated) Aulacorhynchus albivitta [atrogularis Group].

References:

Bonaccorso, E., J.M. Guayasamin, A.T. Peterson, and A.G. Navarro-Sigüenza. 2011. Molecular phylogeny and systematics of Neotropical toucanets in the genus Aulacorhynchus (Aves, Ramphastidae). Zoologica Scripta 40: 336-349.

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Auk 134: 751-773.

Monroe, B.L., Jr. 1968. A distributional survey of the birds of Honduras. Ornithological Monographs number 7. American Ornithologists’ Union.

Peters, J.L. 1948. Check-list of birds of the world. Volume VI. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Puebla-Olivares, F., E. Bonaccorso, A. Espinosa de los Monteros, K.E. Omland, J.E. Llorente-Bousquets, A.T. Peterson, and A.G. Navarro-Sigüenza. 2008. Speciation in the Emerald Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus prasinus) complex. Auk 125: 39-50.

Winker, K. 2016. An examination of species limits in the Aulacorhynchusprasinus” toucanet complex (Aves: Ramphastidae). PeerJ 4: e2381.

 

page 135, Horned Parakeet  Eunymphicus cornutus

Each of the two monotypic groups of Horned Parakeet is recognized as a separate species, following Juniper and Parr (1998) and Boon et al. (2014): Horned Parakeet (Horned) Eunymphicus cornutus cornutus becomes Horned Parakeet Eunymphicus cornutus, and Horned Parakeet (Ouvea) Eunymphicus cornutus uvaeensis becomes Ouvea Parakeet Eunymphicus uvaeensis.

References:

Boon, W.-M., O. Robinet, N. Rawlence, V. Bretagnolle, J.A. Norman, L. Christidis, and G.K. Chambers. 2008. Morphological, behavioural, and genetic differentiation within the Horned Parakeet (Eunymphicus cornutus) and its affinities to Cyanoramphus and Prosopeia. Emu 108: 251-260.

Juniper, T., and M. Parr. 1998. Parrots: a guide to parrots of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.

 

page (addition 2017), Tatama Tapaculo  Scytalopus alvarezlopezi

We add a new species, the recently described Tatama Tapaculo Scytalopus alvarezlopezi (Stiles et al. 2017), with range “Pacific slope of Colombian Andes (western Antioquia south to southwestern Valle del Cauca)”. Position Tatama Tapaculo to immediately follow Ecuadorian Tapaculo Scytalopus robbinsi. Tatama Tapaculo is the species that long has been known to birders as “Alto Pisones Tapaculo”; Alto de Pisones is a site at the edge of Tamatá National Park. Please note that the validity of this new species has not yet been reviewed by AOS-SACC.

Reference:

Stiles, F.G., O. Laverde-R., and C.D. Cadena. 2017. A new species of tapaculo (Rhinocryptidae: Scytalopus) from the Western Andes of Colombia. Auk 134: 377-392.

 

page 558, Cardinal Myzomela  Myzomela cardinalis

The monotypic group Cardinal Myzomela (Samoan) Myzomela cardinalis nigriventris is elevated to species rank as Samoan Myzomela Myzomela nigriventris, following Pratt and Mittermeier (2016).

Reference:

Pratt, H.D., and J.C. Mittermeier. 2016. Notes on the natural history, taxonomy, and conservation of the endemic avifaua of the Samoan Archipelago. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 128: 217-241.

 

page 571, Northern Shrike  Lanius excubitor

In accord with AOS-NACC (Chesser et al. 2017), Northern Shrike Lanius excubitor is split into two species: Great Gray Shrike Lanius excubitor, with subspecies excubitor, homeyeri, and leucopterus; and Northern Shrike Lanius borealis, with subspecies sibiricus, bianchii, mollis, funereus, and borealis. This split is based on “differences in plumage and mtDNA (Johnsen et al. 2010, Olsson et al. 2010, Peer et al. 2011)” (Chesser et al. 2017); in particular, Northern Shrike is more closely related to other species than it is to Great Gray Shrike (Olsson et al. 2010).

References:

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Auk 134: 751-773.

Johnsen, A., E. Rindal, P.G.P. Ericson, D. Zuccon, K.C.R. Kerr, M.Y. Stoeckle, and J.T. Lifjeld. 2010. DNA barcoding of Scandinavian birds reveals divergent lineages in trans-Atlantic species. Journal of Ornithology 151: 565–578.

Olsson, U., P. Alström, L. Svensson, M. Aliabadian, and P. Sundberg. 2010. The Lanius excubitor (Aves, Passeriformes) conundrum—taxonomic dilemma when molecular and non-molecular data tell different stories. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 55: 347–357.

Peer, B.D., C.E. McIntosh, M.J. Kuehn, S.I. Rothstein, and R.C. Fleischer. 2011. Complex biogeographic history of Lanius shrikes and its implications for the evolution of defenses against avian brood parasitism. Condor 113: 385–394.

 

page 700, Piopio  Turnagra capensis

The extinct genus Turnagra, which we previously treated as a single, monotypic species, Piopio Turnagra capensis, is split into two species, following Oliver (1955), Holdaway et al. (2001), and Gill et al. (2010): a monotypic North Island Piopio Turnagra tanagra, with range “Formerly New Zealand (North Island). Extinct; last confirmed report in 1902”; and a polytypic South Island Piopio Turnagra capensis, with subspecies minor and capensis.

Add a previously overlooked subspecies, Turnagra capensis minor, with range “Formerly New Zealand (Stephens Island). Extinct; last reported 1897” (Gill et al. 2010).

With the split of Turnagra into two species, and the addition of subspecies minor, revise the range description of nominate capensis from “Formerly New Zealand. Extinct; last reported 1963” to “Formerly New Zealand (South Island). Extinct; last confirmed report in 1905”.

References:

Gill, B.J., B.D. Bell, C.K. Chambers, D.G. Medway, R.L. Palma, R.P. Scofield, A.J.D. Tennyson, and T.H. Worthy (Checklist Committee, Ornithological Society of New Zealand). 2010. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Te Papa Press and the Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand.

Holdaway, R.N., T.H. Worthy, and A.J.D. Tennyson. 2001. A working list of breeding bird species of the New Zealand region at first human contact. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 28:

119-187.

Oliver, W.R.B. 1955. New Zealand birds. A.H. & A.W. Reed, Wellington, New Zealand.

 

page 479, Silktail  Lamprolia victoriae

Silktail Lamprolia victoriae is split into monotypic species, following Andersen et al. (2015b, 2017): Taveuni Silktail Lamprolia victoriae, and Natewa Silktail Lamprolia klinesmithi.

References:

Andersen, M.J., P.A. Hosner, C.E Filardi, and R.G. Moyle. 2015b. Phylogeny of the monarch flycatchers reveals extensive paraphyly and novel relationships within a major Australo-Pacific radiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 67: 336–347.

Andersen, M.J., J.D. Manthey, A. Naikatini, and R.G. Moyle. 2017. Conservation genomics of the silktail (Aves: Lamprolia victoriae) suggests the need for increased protection of native forest on the Natewa Peninsula, Fiji. Conservation Genetics in press: doi:10.1007/s10592-017-0979-x.

 

page 584, Superb Bird-of-Paradise  Lophorina superba

Superb Bird-of-Paradise is split into three species, following Irestedt et al. (2017). Confusingly, the name superba also is transferred from one population to another (Irestedt et al. 2017). The resulting species are Vogelkop Superb Bird-of-Paradise Lophorina niedda, with subspecies niedda and the newly described subspecies inopinata; Greater Superb Bird-of-Paradise Lophorina superba, with subspecies superba, addenda, and latipennis; and a monotypic Lesser Superb Bird-of-Paradise Lophorina minor.

Under Vogelkop Superb Bird-of-Paradise (Lophorina niedda), add a newly described subspecies, Lophorina niedda inopinata Irestedt et al. 2017, with range “mountains of the Bird’s Head Peninsula, West Papua, New Guinea”. Insert this subspecies immediately following the entry for the species Vogelkop Superb Bird-of-Paradise Lophorina niedda. Note that the range attributed to this subspecies corresponds to the range formerly attributed to subspecies superba, a name that now is applied to a population in the western highlands of New Guinea, and which represents a different species, Greater Superb Bird-of-Paradise.

Revise the range description of subspecies niedda from “W New Guinea (Mt. Wondiwoi in Wandammen Peninsula)” to “mountains of the Wandammen Peninsula, Bird’s Neck, West Papua, New Guinea”.

Regarding Greater Superb Bird-of-Paradise (Lophorina superba), Irestedt et al. (2017) conclude that the name superba, previously applied to the population in the mountains of the Bird’s Head Peninsula, instead should refer to the population of the central highlands of New Guinea. Also, subspecies feminina, with range “W New Guinea (Weyland Mts. to Hindenberg Mts.)”, is considered to be a junior synonym of superba (Irestedt et al. 2017). Revise the range description of superba from “W New Guinea (Arfak and Tamrau mountains)” to “montane western New Guinea, from the Kobowre Mountains (West Papua, Indonesia) to the Sepik-Strickland River Divide (western Papua New Guinea)”.

Following Irestedt et al. (2017), resurrect subspecies addenda Iredale 1948, previously considered to be a synomym of feminina (Mayr 1962), with range “eastern ranges of New Guinea, from the Yuat-Strickland River Divide and the base of the southeastern Peninsula, Papua New Guinea”. Insert subspecies addenda immediately following subspecies superba.

Revise the range description of subspecies latipennis from “E New Guinea (Central and E Highlands to mts. of Huon Pen.)” to “eastern New Guinea (mountains of the Huon Peninsula, and presumably also the Herzog and Adelbert Ranges)”.

Lesser Superb Bird-of-Paradise (Lophorina minor) is monotypic. Subspecies sphinx, known from a single specimen, with range “Mountains of extreme se New Guinea”, is considered to be a junior synonym of minor (Irestedt et al. 2017), and is deleted. Revise the range description of minor from “Mountains of se Papua New Guinea” to “southeastern Papua New Guinea (mountains of the Papuan Peninsula, west at least to the Wharton Range)”.

References:

Irestedt, M., H. Batalha-Filho, C.S. Roselaar, P.G.P. Ericson, L. Christidis, and R. Schodde. 2017. Phylogeny, biogeography and taxonomic consequences in a bird-of-paradise species complex, Lophorina-Ptiloris (Aves: Paradisaeidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society in press.

Mayr, E. 1962. Family Paradisaeidae, Birds of Paradise. Pages 181-204 in E. Mayr and J.C. Greenway, Jr. (editors), Check-list of the birds of the world. Volume XV. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

 

page 584, Magnificent Riflebird  Ptiloris magnificus

Each of the two groups in Magnifcent Riflebird is recognized as a separate species, following Beehler and Swaby (1991), Beehler and Pratt (2016), and Irestedt et al. (2017): a polytypic Magnificent Riflebird Ptiloris magnificus, including subspecies magnificus and alberti; and a monotypic Growling Riflebird Ptiloris intercedens.

References:

Irestedt, M., H. Batalha-Filho, C.S. Roselaar, P.G.P. Ericson, L. Christidis, and R. Schodde. 2017. Phylogeny, biogeography and taxonomic consequences in a bird-of-paradise species complex, Lophorina-Ptiloris (Aves: Paradisaeidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society in press.

Beehler, B.M., and T.K. Pratt. 2016. Birds of New Guinea: distribution, taxonomy, and systematics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Beehler, B.M., and R.J. Swaby. 1991. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Ptiloris riflebirds (Aves: Paradisaeidae). Condor 93: 738-745.

 

page 378, Streak-eared Bulbul  Pycnonotus blanfordi

Streak-eared Bulbul Pycnonotus blanfordi is split into two monotypic species, Ayeyarwady Bulbul Pycnonotus blanfordi, and Streak-eared Bulbul Pycnonotus conradi (Garg et al. 2016). Note that the English name “Streak-eared Bulbul” now is applied to a different scientific name (conradi, not blanfordi).

Reference:

Garg, K.M., R. Tizard, N.S.R. Ng, E. Cros, A. Dejtaradol, B. Chattopadhyay, N. Pwint, M. Päckert, and F.E. Rheindt. 2016. Genome-wide data help identify an avian species-level lineage that is morphologically and vocally cryptic. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 102: 97-103.

 

page 383, Buff-vented Bulbul  Iole olivacea

Buff-vented Bulbul has been listed as a monotypic species, Iole olivacea, since subspecies were introduced to the eBird/Clements Checklist (Clements Checklist fifth edition, 2000). The species name is charlottae (Dickinson and Christidis 2014), not olivacea, however, and the species should have been considered to be polytypic, with subspecies crypta and charlottae (Rand and Deignan 1960, Dickinson and Christidis 2014). Manawatthana et al. (2017) now demonstrate that crypta and charlottae each should be recognized as a separate species. The English name Buff-vented Bulbul remains with Iole crypta. Revise the range description of Buff-vented Bulbul from “Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo and adjacent islands” to “Thai-Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Bangka and Belitung, Anambas Islands, and Natuna”. The English name of Iole charlottae is Charlotte’s Bulbul. Revise the range description of Charlotte’s Bulbul from “Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo and adjacent islands” to “Borneo”.

References:

Dickinson, E.C., and L. Christidis. 2014. The Howard & Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world. Fourth edition. Volume 2. Aves Press, Eastbourne, United Kingdom.

Manawatthana, S., P. Laosinchai, N. Onparn, W.Y. Brockleman, and P.D. Round. 2017. Phylogeography of bulbuls in the genus Iole (Aves: Pycnonotidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 120: 931-944.

Rand, A.L., and H.G. Deignan. 1960. Family Pycnonotidae. Pages 221-300 in E. Mayr and J.C. Greenway, Jr. (editors), Check-list of birds of the world. Volume IX. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

 

page 383, Olive Bulbul  Iole virescens

Olive Bulbul Iole virescens is split into two species, following Manawatthana et al. (2017): a monotypic Cachar Bulbul Iole cacharensis; and Olive Bulbul Iole viridescens. Revise the range of Cachar Bulbul from “northeastern India (Assam); population in eastern Bangladesh possibly also this subspecies (or is nominate virescens?)” to “northeastern India (Assam) and eastern Bangladesh”.

Olive Bulbul contains three subspecies: viridescens, and two subspecies that previously were classified under Gray-eyed Bulbul (Iole propinqua), lekhakuni and cinnamomeoventris.

Reference:

Manawatthana, S., P. Laosinchai, N. Onparn, W.Y. Brockleman, and P.D. Round. 2017. Phylogeography of bulbuls in the genus Iole (Aves: Pycnonotidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 120: 931-944.

 

page 555, Gray-brown White-eye  Zosterops cinereus

Gray-brown White-eye Zosterops cinereus is split into two species, following Hayes et al. (2016): Pohnpei White-eye Zosterops ponapensis, and Kosrae White-eye Zosterops cinereus.

Reference:

Hayes, F.E., H.D. Pratt, and C.J. Cianchini. 2016. The avifauna of Kosrae, Micronesia: history, status, and taxonomy. Pacific Science 70: 91–127.

 

page 491, Black-chinned Laughingthrush  Trochalopteron cachinnans

Black-chinned Laughingthrush Trochalopteron cachinnans does not belong in the genus Trochalopteron, but instead is placed in the newly described genus Montecincla (Robin et al. 2017). Position Montecincla immediately following Red-tailed Laughingthrush Trochalopteron milnei. Each of the two monotypic groups of Black-chinned Laughingthrush is elevated to species rank (Praveen and Nameer 2012, Robin et al. 2017): Black-chinned Laughingthrush (Banasura) Trochalopteron cachinnans jerdoni becomes Banasura Laughingthrush Montecincla jerdoni; and Black-chinned Laughingthrush (Nilgiri) Trochalopteron cachinnans cachinnans

becomes Nilgiri Laughingthrush Montecincla cachinnans.

References:

Praveen, J., and P.O. Nameer. 2012. Strophocincla laughingthrushes of south India: a case for allopatric speciation and impact on their conservation. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 109: 46-52.

Robin, V.V., C.K. Vishnudas, P. Gupta, F.E. Rheindt, D.H. Hooper, U. Ramakrishnan, and S. Reddy. 2017. Two new genera of songbirds represent endemic radiations from the Shola Sky Islands of the Western Ghats, India. BMC Evolutionary Biology 17: 31.

 

page 491, Kerala Laughingthrush  Trochalopteron fairbanki

Kerala Laughingthrush Trochalopteron fairbanki does not belong in the genus Trochalopteron, but instead is placed in the newly described genus Montecincla (Robin et al. 2017). Position Montecincla immediately following Red-tailed Laughingthrush Trochalopteron milnei. Each of the two monotypic groups of Kerala Laughingthrush is elevated to species rank (Praveen and Nameer 2012, Robin et al. 2017): Kerala Laughingthrush (Palani) Trochalopteron fairbanki fairbanki becomes Palani Laughingthrush Montecincla fairbanki; and Kerala Laughingthrush (Travancore) Trochalopteron fairbanki meridionale becomes Ashambu Laughingthrush Montecincla meridionale.

References:

Praveen, J., and P.O. Nameer. 2012. Strophocincla laughingthrushes of south India: a case for allopatric speciation and impact on their conservation. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 109: 46-52.

Robin, V.V., C.K. Vishnudas, P. Gupta, F.E. Rheindt, D.H. Hooper, U. Ramakrishnan, and S. Reddy. 2017. Two new genera of songbirds represent endemic radiations from the Shola Sky Islands of the Western Ghats, India. BMC Evolutionary Biology 17: 31.

 

page 453, Blue-throated Flycatcher  Cyornis rubeculoides

The monotypic group Blue-throated Flycatcher (Chinese) Cyornis rubeculoides glaucicomans is elevated to species rank as Chinese Blue Flycatcher Cyornis glaucicomans (Zhang et al. 2015). Revise the range description from “S China (Sichuan, Guizhou, w Hubei and Shaanxi)” to “breeds southern China (southern Shaanxi and western Hubei to Sichuan and Guizhou); winters southwestern Thailand and the Thai-Malay Peninsula”.

Reference:

Zhang, Z., X. Wang, Y. Huang, U. Olsson, J. Martinez, P. Alström, and F. Lei. 2015. Unexpected divergence and lack of divergence revealed in continental Asian Cyornis flycatchers (Aves: Muscicapidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 94: 232-241.

 

page 456, White-tailed Rubythroat  Calliope pectoralis

White-tailed Rubythroat Calliope pectoralis is split into two species, based on Liu et al. (2016): a polytypic Himalayan Rubythroat Calliope pectoralis, including subspecies pectoralis, confusa, and ballioni; and a monotypic Chinese Rubythroat Calliope tschebaiewi.

Reference:

Liu, Y., G. Chen, Q. Huang, C. Jia, G. Carey, P. Leader, Y. Li, F. Zou, X. Yang, U. Olsson, and P. Alström. 2016. Species delimitation of the white-tailed rubythroat Calliope pectoralis complex (Aves, Muscicapidae) using an integrative taxonomic approach. Journal of Avian Biology 47: 899-910.

 

page 687, Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch  Geospiza difficilis

In accord with AOS-SACC (Proposal 676), Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch Geospiza difficilis is split into three monotypic species, based on Lamicchaney et al. (2015). AOS-SACC has not yet determined English names for these species; provisionally we use the following nomenclature: Vampire Ground-Finch Geospiza septentrionalis; Genovesa Ground-Finch Geospiza acutirostris; and Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch Geospiza difficilis.

Reference:

Lamichhaney, S., J. Berglund, M. Sällman Almén, K. Maqbool, M. Grabherr, A. Martinez-Barrio, M. Promerová, C.-J.  Rubin, C. Wang, C., N. Zamani, B.R. Grant, P.R., Grant, M.T. Webster, and L. Andersson. 2015. Evolution of Darwin’s finches and their beaks revealed by genome sequencing. Nature 518: 371–375.

 

page 687, Large Cactus-Finch  Geospiza conirostris

In accord with AOS-SACC (Proposal 676), Large Cactus-Finch Geospiza conirostris is split into two species, based on Lamicchaney et al. (2015). AOS-SACC has not yet determined English names for these species; provisionally we use the following nomenclature: Española Cactus-Finch Geospiza conirostris, which is monotypic; and Genovesa Cactus-Finch Geospiza propinqua, which includes subspecies propinqua and darwini.

Reference:

Lamichhaney, S., J. Berglund, M. Sällman Almén, K. Maqbool, M. Grabherr, A. Martinez-Barrio, M. Promerová, C.-J.  Rubin, C. Wang, C., N. Zamani, B.R. Grant, P.R., Grant, M.T. Webster, and L. Andersson. 2015. Evolution of Darwin’s finches and their beaks revealed by genome sequencing. Nature 518: 371–375.

 

page 687, Yellow-eyed Junco  Junco phaeonotus

In accord with AOS-NACC (Chesser et al. 2017), the monotypic group Yellow-eyed Junco (Baird’s) Junco phaeonotus bairdi is elevated to species rank as Baird’s Junco Junco bairdi. This split is based on “morphology (Miller 1941), vocalizations (Howell and Webb 1995, Pieplow and Francis 2011), and genetics (McCormack et al. 2012, Friis et al. 2016, Milá et al. 2016)” (Chesser et al. 2017).

References:

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Auk 134: 751-773.

Friis, G., P. Aleixandre, R. Rodriguez-Estrella, A.G. Navarro-Sigüenza, and B. Milá. 2016. Rapid postglacial diversification and long-term stasis within the songbird genus Junco: phylogeographic and phylogenomic evidence. Molecular Ecology 25: 6175–6195.

Howell, S.N.G., and S. Webb. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, New York.

McCormack, J.E., J.M. Maley, S.M. Hird, E.P. Derryberry, G.R. Graves, and R.T. Brumfield. 2012. Next-generation sequencing reveals phylogeographic structure and a species tree for recent bird divergences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62: 397-406.

Milá, B., P. Aleixandre, S. Alvarez-Nordström, and J. McCormack. 2016. More than meets the eye: lineage diversity and evolutionary history of dark-eyed and yellow-eyed juncos. Pages 179-198 in E.D. Ketterson and J.W. Atwell (editors), Snowbird. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Miller, A.H. 1941. Speciation in the avian genus Junco. University of California Publications in Zoology 44: 173-434.

Pieplow, N.D., and C.D. Francis. 2011. Song differences among subspecies of Yellow-eyed Juncos (Junco phaeonotus). Wilson Journal of Ornithology 123: 464-471.

 

page 680, Prevost’s Ground-Sparrow  Melozone biarcuata

In accord with AOS-NACC (Chesser et al. 2017), Prevost’s Ground-Sparrow Melozone biarcuata is split into two species: White-faced Ground-Sparrow Melozone biarcuata, and Cabanis’s Ground-Sparrow Melozone cabanisi. This action is based on Sandoval et al. (2014), who documented vocal differences between these two populations; furthermore, the plumage differences between them are commensurate with differences between other closely related species in the family. Following Sandoval et al. (2014), we also consider subspecies hartwegi, with range “Highlands of s Mexico (Chiapas)”, to be a junior synomym of nominate biarcuata, and this subspecies is deleted. White-faced Ground-Sparrow thus becomes monotypic. Revise the range description of White-faced Ground-Sparrow from “Highlands of Guatemala, El Salvador and w Honduras” to “highlands of southern Mexico (Chiapas) Guatemala, El Salvador, and western Honduras”.

References:

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Auk 134: 751-773.

Sandoval, L., P.-P. Bitton, S.M. Doucet, and D.J. Mennill. 2014. Analysis of plumage, morphology, and voice reveals species-level differences between two subspecies of Prevost’s Ground-Sparrow Melozone biarcuata (Prévost and Des Murs) (Aves: Emberizidae). Zootaxa 3895: 103–116.

 

page (addition 2009),  Red Crossbill  Loxia curvirostra

In accord with AOS-NACC (Chesser et al. 2017), the recently described monotypic group, Red Crossbill (South Hills or type 9) Loxia curvirostra sinesciuris is elevated to species rank as Cassia Crossbill Loxia sinesciuris. This split is based on evidence for premating reproductive isolation in the face of sympatry with Red Crossbill (Smith and Benkman 2007, Benkman et al. 2009), and on genomic differences (Parchman et al. 2016).

References:

Benkman, C.W., J.W. Smith, P.C. Keenan, T.L. Parchman, and L. Santisteban. 2009. A new species of red crossbill (Fringillidae: Loxia) from Idaho. Condor 111: 169–176.

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Auk 134: 751-773.

Parchman, T.L., C.A. Buerkle, V. Soria-Carrasco, and C.W. Benkman. 2016. Genome divergence and diversification within a geographic mosaic of coevolution. Molecular Ecology 25: 5705-5718.

Smith, J.W., and C.W. Benkman. 2007. A coevolutionary arms race causes ecological speciation in crossbills. American Naturalist 169: 455–465.

 

 

SPECIES LOSSES (lumps and other deletions)

 

page 101, Thayer’s Gull  Larus thayeri

In accord with AOS-NACC (Chesser et al. 2017), Thayer’s Gull Larus thayeri is lumped with Iceland Gull Larus glaucoides, and becomes Larus glaucoides thayeri. We continue to recognize this taxon as a monotypic group, Iceland Gull (Thayer’s) Larus glaucoides thayeri. This lump is based on “evidence of non-assortative mating between thayeri and kumlieni on Baffin and Southampton islands (Weber 1981, Gaston and Decker 1985, Snell 1989)” (Chesser et al. 2017).

References:

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Auk 134: 751-773.

Gaston, A.J., and R. Decker. 1985. Interbreeding of Thayer’s Gull, Larus thayeri, and Kumlien’s Gull, Larus glaucoides kumlieni on Southampton Island, Northwest Territories. Canadian Field-Naturalist 99: 257-259.

Snell, R.R. 1989.  Status of Larus gulls at Home Bay, Baffin Island. Colonial Waterbirds 112: 12-23.

Weber, J.W. 1981. The Larus gulls of the Pacific Northwest interior, with taxonomic comments on several forms (Part 1). Continental Birdlife 2: 1-10.

 

page 536, Western Olive Sunbird  Cyanomitra obscura

Western Olive Sunbird Cyanomitra obscura is lumped with Eastern Olive Sunbird Cyanomitra olivacea, following Bowie et al. (2004). The combined species becomes Olive Sunbird Cyanomitra olivacea. The ranges of many subspecies are revised, following Fry and Keith (2000), and the sequence of subspecies within Olive Sunbird is reordered.

Revise the range description of subspecies guineensis from “Guinea-Bissau to Togo” to “Senegal to Togo”. Change the scientific name from Cyanomitra obscura guineensis to Cyanomitra olivacea guineensis.

Revise the range description of subspecies cephaelis from “Ghana to Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, n Angola and Congo Basin” to “Benin to northern Angola and the Congo Basin”. Change the scientific name from Cyanomitra obscura cephaelis to Cyanomitra olivacea cephaelis.

Change the scientific name of subspecies obscura from Cyanomitra obscura obscura to Cyanomitra olivacea obscura.

Revise the range description of subspecies ragazzii from “S Sudan to Uganda, w Kenya, w Tanzania, e Democratic Republic of the Congo and n Zambia” to “southern South Sudan and southwestern Ethiopia to Uganda, western Kenya, western Tanzania, eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, and northern Zambia”. Change the scientific name from Cyanomitra obscura ragazzii to Cyanomitra olivacea ragazzii.

Revise the range description of subspecies neglecta from “Highlands of ne Kenya to ne Tanzania” to “central Kenya to northeastern Tanzania”.

Change the scientific name of subspecies granti from Cyanomitra obscura granti to Cyanomitra olivacea granti.

Revise the range description of subspecies sclateri from “Mts. of e Zimbabwe and immediately adjacent Mozambique” to “eastern Zimbabwe and west central Mozambique”. Change the scientific name from Cyanomitra obscura sclateri to Cyanomitra olivacea sclateri.

Revise the range description of subspecies olivacina from “coastal southern Tanzania to southern Mozambique and northeastern South Africa (northeastern KwaZulu-Natal)” to “northeastern South Africa (northeastern KwaZulu-Natal) and southern Mozambique”.

Revise the range description of nominate olivacea from “South Africa (Pondoland to Natal and s Zululand)” to “eastern South Africa (southern KwaZulu-Natal to Eastern Cape) and Swaziland”.

References:

Bowie, R.C.K., J. Fjeldså, S.J. Hackett, and T.M. Crowe. 2004. Molecular evolution in space and through time: mtDNA phylogeography of the Olive Sunbird (Nectarinia olivacea/obscura) throughout continental Africa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 33: 56-74.

Fry, C.H., and S. Keith (editors). 2000. The birds of Africa. Volume VI. Academic Press, London.

 

ORDERS AND FAMILIES

ORDERS (newly recognized orders)

page 34, Cathartiformes  Cathartidae (New World Vultures)

In accord with AOU-NACC (Chesser et al. 2016), the New World Vultures Cathartidae are removed from Accipitriformes and are placed in a new order, Cathartiformes, based on the very deep phylogenomic divergence between vultures and the rest of Accipitriformes (Jarvis et al. 2014, Prum et al. 2015). The position of New World Vultures in the linear sequence does not change.

References:

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2016. Fifty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-list of North American birds. Auk 133: 544-560.

Jarvis, E.D., S. Mirarab, A.J. Aberer, B. Li, P. Houde, C. Li, S.Y.W. Ho, B.C. Faircloth, B. Nabholz, J.T. Howard, A. Suh, C.C. Weber, R.R. da Fonseca, J. Li, F. Zhang, H. Li, L. Zhou, N. Narula, L. Liu, G. Ganapathy, B. Boussau, Md. S. Bayzid, V. Zavidovych, S. Subramanian, T. Gabaldón, S. Capella-Gutiérrez, J. Huerta-Cepas, B. Rekepalli, K. Munch, M. Schierup, B. Lindow, W.C. Warren, D. Ray, R.E. Green, M.W. Bruford, X. Zhan, A. Dixon, S. Li, N. Li, Y. Huang, E.P. Derryberrry, M.F. Bertelsen, F.H. Sheldon, R.T. Brumfield, C.V. Mello, P.V. Lovell, M. Wirthlin, M.P.C. Schneider, F. Prosdocimi, J.A. Samaniego, A.M.V. Velazquez, A. Alfaro-Núñez, P.F. Campos, B. Petersen, T. Sicheritz-Ponten, A. Pas, T. Bailey, P. Scofield, M. Bunce, D.M. Lambert, Q. Zhou, P. Perelman, A.C. Driskell, B. Shapiro, Z. Xiong, Y. Zeng, S. Liu, Z. Li, B. Liu, K. Wu, J. Xiao, X. Yinqi, Q. Zheng, Y. Zhong, H. Yang, J. Wang, L. Smeds, F.E. Rheindt, M. Braun, J. Fjeldsa, L. Orlando, F.K. Barker, K.A. Jønsson, W. Johnson, K.-P. Koepfli, S. O’Brien, D. Haussler, O.A. Ryder, C. Rahbek, E. Willerslev, G.R. Graves, T.C. Glenn, J. McCormack, D. Burt, H. Ellegren, P. Alström, S.V. Edwards, A. Stamatakis, D.P. Mindell, J. Cracraft, E.L. Braun, T. Warnow, W. Jun, M.T. P. Gilbert, and G. Zhang. 2014. Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds. Science 346: 1320-1331.

Prum, R.O., J.S. Berv, A. Dornburg, D.J. Field, J.P. Townsend, E.M. Lemmon, and A.R. Lemmon. 2015. A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing. Nature 526: 569-573.

FAMILIES (newly recognized families)

pages 493, 496  Modulatricidae (Dapple-throat and Allies)

Spot-throat Modulatrix stictigula, Dapple-throat Arcanator orostruthus, and Gray-chested Babbler Kakamega poliothorax are removed from Promeropidae (Sugarbirds), and are placed in a newly recognized family, Modulatricidae (Dapple-throat and Allies), following Fjeldså et al. (2015).

Reference:

Fjeldså, J., P.G.P. Ericson, U. Johansson, and D. Zuccon. 2015. Three new bird family names. Pages 33–34 in D.W. Winkler, S.M. Billerman, and I.J. Lovette, Bird families of the world. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page 652, Rhodinocichlidae (Thrush-Tanager)

In accord with AOS-NACC (Chesser et al. 2017), Rosy Thrush-Tanager Rhodinocichla rosea is removed from Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies) and is placed in a new monotypic family, Rhodinocichlidae (Thrush-Tanager), following Barker et al. (2013, 2015). Position Rhodinocichlidae to immediately follow McKay’s Bunting Plectrophenax hyperboreus.

References:

Barker, F.K., K.J. Burns, J. Klicka, S.M. Lanyon, and I.J. Lovette. 2013. Going to extremes: contrasting rates of diversification in a recent radiation of New World passerine birds. Systematic Biology 62: 298-320.

Barker, F.K., K.J. Burns, J. Klicka, S.M. Lanyon, and I.J. Lovette. 2015. New insights into New World biogeography: an integrated view from the phylogeny of blackbirds, cardinals, sparrows, tanagers, warblers, and allies. Auk 132: 333-348.

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Auk 134: 751-773.

 

pages 649-650, 664, 676-687, Passerellidae (New World Buntings and Sparrows)

In accord with AOS-NACC (Chesser et al. 2017), all New World species of Emberizidae (Emberizidae (Buntings and New World Sparrows) are recognized as a separate family, Passerellidae (New World Buntings and Sparrows), following Barker et al. (2013, 2015). AOS-NACC also revised the linear sequence of families in the nine-primaried oscines (Chesser et al. 2017), but we defer completely following the new sequence until our next release (August 2018). In the interim, the relative positions of Passerellidae and Emberizidae do not change: Passerellidae immediately follows Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies), and Emberizidae immediately follows Passerellidae.  Change the English name of Emberizidae from “Buntings and New World Sparrows” to “Old World Buntings”.

References:

Barker, F.K., K.J. Burns, J. Klicka, S.M. Lanyon, and I.J. Lovette. 2013. Going to extremes: contrasting rates of diversification in a recent radiation of New World passerine birds. Systematic Biology 62: 298-320.

Barker, F.K., K.J. Burns, J. Klicka, S.M. Lanyon, and I.J. Lovette. 2015. New insights into New World biogeography: an integrated view from the phylogeny of blackbirds, cardinals, sparrows, tanagers, warblers, and allies. Auk 132: 333-348.

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Auk 134: 751-773.

 

page 652, Calyptophilidae (Chat-Tanagers)

In accord with AOS-NACC (Chesser et al. 2017), the two species of chat-tanagers (Calyptophilus) are removed from Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies) and are placed in a new family, Calyptophilidae (Chat-Tanagers), following Barker et al. (2013, 2015). AOS-NACC also revised the linear sequence of families in the nine-primaried oscines (Chesser et al. 2017), but we defer completely following the new sequence until our next release (August 2018). In the interim, position Calyptophilidae to follow Emberizidae (Old World Buntings).

References:

Barker, F.K., K.J. Burns, J. Klicka, S.M. Lanyon, and I.J. Lovette. 2013. Going to extremes: contrasting rates of diversification in a recent radiation of New World passerine birds. Systematic Biology 62: 298-320.

Barker, F.K., K.J. Burns, J. Klicka, S.M. Lanyon, and I.J. Lovette. 2015. New insights into New World biogeography: an integrated view from the phylogeny of blackbirds, cardinals, sparrows, tanagers, warblers, and allies. Auk 132: 333-348.

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Auk 134: 751-773.

 

page 643, 647, 652, Phaenicophilidae (Hispaniolan Tanagers)

In accord with AOS-NACC (Chesser et al. 2017), the palm-tanagers (Phaenicophilus) are removed from Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies), and the genera Xenoligea and Microligea are removed from Parulidae (New World Warblers. All three genera are placed in a new family, Phaenicophilidae (Hispaniolan Tanagers), following Barker et al. (2013, 2015). The sequence of species in Phaenicophilidae is Black-crowned Palm-Tanager (Phaenicophilus palmarum),

Gray-crowned Palm-Tanager (Phaenicophilus poliocephalus), White-winged Warbler (Xenoligea montana), and Green-tailed Warbler (Microligea palustris). AOS-NACC also revised the linear sequence of families in the nine-primaried oscines (Chesser et al. 2017), but we defer completely following the new sequence until our next release (August 2018). In the interim, position Phaenicophilidae to follow Emberizidae (Old World Buntings) and Calyptophilidae (Chat-Tanagers).

References:

Barker, F.K., K.J. Burns, J. Klicka, S.M. Lanyon, and I.J. Lovette. 2013. Going to extremes: contrasting rates of diversification in a recent radiation of New World passerine birds. Systematic Biology 62: 298-320.

Barker, F.K., K.J. Burns, J. Klicka, S.M. Lanyon, and I.J. Lovette. 2015. New insights into New World biogeography: an integrated view from the phylogeny of blackbirds, cardinals, sparrows, tanagers, warblers, and allies. Auk 132: 333-348.

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Auk 134: 751-773.

 

page 649, Nesospingidae (Puerto Rican Tanager)

In accord with AOS-NACC (Chesser et al. 2017), Puerto Rican Tanager (Nesospingus speculiferus) is removed from Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies) and is placed in a new monotypic family, Nesospingidae (Puerto Rican Tanager), following Barker et al. (2013, 2015). AOS-NACC also revised the linear sequence of families in the nine-primaried oscines (Chesser et al. 2017), but we defer completely following the new sequence until our next release (August 2018). In the interim, position Nesospingidae to follow Emberizidae (Old World Buntings), Calyptophilidae (Chat-Tanagers), and Phaenicophilidae (Hispaniolan Tanagers).

References:

Barker, F.K., K.J. Burns, J. Klicka, S.M. Lanyon, and I.J. Lovette. 2013. Going to extremes: contrasting rates of diversification in a recent radiation of New World passerine birds. Systematic Biology 62: 298-320.

Barker, F.K., K.J. Burns, J. Klicka, S.M. Lanyon, and I.J. Lovette. 2015. New insights into New World biogeography: an integrated view from the phylogeny of blackbirds, cardinals, sparrows, tanagers, warblers, and allies. Auk 132: 333-348.

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Auk 134: 751-773.

 

page 655, Spindalidae (Spindalises)

In accord with AOS-NACC (Chesser et al. 2017), the genus Spindalis is removed from Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies) and is placed in a new family, Spindalidae (Spindalises), following Barker et al. (2013, 2015). AOS-NACC also revised the linear sequence of families in the nine-primaried oscines (Chesser et al. 2017), but we defer completely following the new sequence until our next release (August 2018). In the interim, position Nesospingidae to follow Emberizidae (Old World Buntings), Calyptophilidae (Chat-Tanagers), Phaenicophilidae (Hispaniolan Tanagers), and Nesospingidae (Puerto Rican Tanager).

References:

Barker, F.K., K.J. Burns, J. Klicka, S.M. Lanyon, and I.J. Lovette. 2013. Going to extremes: contrasting rates of diversification in a recent radiation of New World passerine birds. Systematic Biology 62: 298-320.

Barker, F.K., K.J. Burns, J. Klicka, S.M. Lanyon, and I.J. Lovette. 2015. New insights into New World biogeography: an integrated view from the phylogeny of blackbirds, cardinals, sparrows, tanagers, warblers, and allies. Auk 132: 333-348.

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Auk 134: 751-773.

 

page 646, Zeledoniidae (Wrenthrush)

In accord with AOS-NACC (Chesser et al. 2017), Wrenthrush (Zeledonia coronata) is removed from Parulidae (New World Warblers) and is placed in a new family, Zeledoniidae (Wrenthrush), following Barker et al. (2013, 2015). AOS-NACC also revised the linear sequence of families in the nine-primaried oscines (Chesser et al. 2017), but we defer completely following the new sequence until our next release (August 2018). In the interim, position Zeledoniidae to follow Emberizidae (Old World Buntings), Calyptophilidae (Chat-Tanagers), Phaenicophilidae (Hispaniolan Tanagers), Nesospingidae (Puerto Rican Tanager), and Spindalidae (Spindalises).

References:

Barker, F.K., K.J. Burns, J. Klicka, S.M. Lanyon, and I.J. Lovette. 2013. Going to extremes: contrasting rates of diversification in a recent radiation of New World passerine birds. Systematic Biology 62: 298-320.

Barker, F.K., K.J. Burns, J. Klicka, S.M. Lanyon, and I.J. Lovette. 2015. New insights into New World biogeography: an integrated view from the phylogeny of blackbirds, cardinals, sparrows, tanagers, warblers, and allies. Auk 132: 333-348.

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Auk 134: 751-773.

 

page 643, Teretistridae (Cuban Warblers)

In accord with AOS-NACC (Chesser et al. 2017), the genus Teretistris is removed from Parulidae (New World Warblers) and is placed in a new family, Teretistridae (Cuban Warblers), following Barker et al. (2013, 2015). AOS-NACC also revised the linear sequence of families in the nine-primaried oscines (Chesser et al. 2017), but we defer completely following the new sequence until our next release (August 2018). In the interim, position Teretistridae to follow Emberizidae (Old World Buntings), Calyptophilidae (Chat-Tanagers), Phaenicophilidae (Hispaniolan Tanagers), Nesospingidae (Puerto Rican Tanager), Spindalidae (Spindalises), and Zeledoniidae (Wrenthrush).

References:

Barker, F.K., K.J. Burns, J. Klicka, S.M. Lanyon, and I.J. Lovette. 2013. Going to extremes: contrasting rates of diversification in a recent radiation of New World passerine birds. Systematic Biology 62: 298-320.

Barker, F.K., K.J. Burns, J. Klicka, S.M. Lanyon, and I.J. Lovette. 2015. New insights into New World biogeography: an integrated view from the phylogeny of blackbirds, cardinals, sparrows, tanagers, warblers, and allies. Auk 132: 333-348.

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Auk 134: 751-773.

page 646, Icteriidae (Yellow-breasted Chat)

In accord with AOS-NACC (Chesser et al. 2017), Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens) is removed from Parulidae (New World Warblers) and is placed in a new monotypic family, Icteriidae (Yellow-breasted Chat), following Barker et al. (2013, 2015). AOS-NACC also revised the linear sequence of families in the nine-primaried oscines (Chesser et al. 2017), but we defer completely following the new sequence until our next release (August 2018). In the interim, position Icteriidae to follow Emberizidae (Old World Buntings), Calyptophilidae (Chat-Tanagers), Phaenicophilidae (Hispaniolan Tanagers), Nesospingidae (Puerto Rican Tanager), Spindalidae (Spindalises), Zeledoniidae (Wrenthrush), and Teretistridae (Cuban Warblers).

References:

Barker, F.K., K.J. Burns, J. Klicka, S.M. Lanyon, and I.J. Lovette. 2013. Going to extremes: contrasting rates of diversification in a recent radiation of New World passerine birds. Systematic Biology 62: 298-320.

Barker, F.K., K.J. Burns, J. Klicka, S.M. Lanyon, and I.J. Lovette. 2015. New insights into New World biogeography: an integrated view from the phylogeny of blackbirds, cardinals, sparrows, tanagers, warblers, and allies. Auk 132: 333-348.

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Auk 134: 751-773.

 

page 652, Mitrospingidae (Mitrospingid Tanagers)

In accord with AOS-NACC (Chesser et al. 2017), the genus Mitrospingus is removed from Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies) and is placed in a new family, Mitrospingidae (Mitrospingid Tanagers), following Barker et al. (2013, 2015). AOS-NACC also revised the linear sequence of families in the nine-primaried oscines (Chesser et al. 2017), but we defer completely following the new sequence until our next release (August 2018). In the interim, position Icteriidae to follow Emberizidae (Old World Buntings), Calyptophilidae (Chat-Tanagers), Phaenicophilidae (Hispaniolan Tanagers), Nesospingidae (Puerto Rican Tanager), Spindalidae (Spindalises), Zeledoniidae (Wrenthrush), Teretistridae (Cuban Warblers), and Icteriidae (Yellow-breasted Chat).

References:

Barker, F.K., K.J. Burns, J. Klicka, S.M. Lanyon, and I.J. Lovette. 2013. Going to extremes: contrasting rates of diversification in a recent radiation of New World passerine birds. Systematic Biology 62: 298-320.

Barker, F.K., K.J. Burns, J. Klicka, S.M. Lanyon, and I.J. Lovette. 2015. New insights into New World biogeography: an integrated view from the phylogeny of blackbirds, cardinals, sparrows, tanagers, warblers, and allies. Auk 132: 333-348.

Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Auk 134: 751-773.

 

STANDARD UPDATES and CORRECTIONS

[in compilation; will be posted at a later date]

GROUPS

GROUPS – newly created groups

 

Yellow-legged Tinamou (zabele) Crypturellus noctivagus zabele

 

Yellow-legged Tinamou (noctivagus) Crypturellus noctivagus noctivagus

 

Bare-faced Curassow (Belem) Crax fasciolata pinima

 

Bare-faced Curassow (Bare-faced) Crax fasciolata fasciolata/grayi

 

Chestnut-necklaced Partridge (Chestnut-necklaced) Arborophila charltonii charltonii/atjenensis

 

Chestnut-necklaced Partridge (Sabah) Arborophila charltonii graydoni

 

Moorland Francolin (Moorland) Scleroptila psilolaema psilolaema

 

Moorland Francolin (Elgon) Scleroptila psilolaema elgonensis

 

Shelley’s Francolin (Shelley’s) Scleroptila shelleyi shelleyi

 

Shelley’s Francolin (Whyte’s) Scleroptila shelleyi whytei

 

Crestless Fireback (Malay) Lophura erythrophthalma erythrophthalma

 

Crestless Fireback (Bornean) Lophura erythrophthalma pyronota

 

Black-shouldered Kite (African) Elanus caeruleus caeruleus

 

Black-shouldered Kite (Asian) Elanus caeruleus [vociferus Group]

 

Variable Goshawk (Lesser Sundas) Accipiter hiogaster sylvestris

 

Variable Goshawk (Variable) Accipiter hiogaster [hiogaster Group]

 

Sharp-shinned Hawk (Madrean) Accipiter striatus madrensis

 

Woodford’s Rail (Bougainville) Nesoclopeus woodfordi tertius

 

Woodford’s Rail (Santa Isabel) Nesoclopeus woodfordi immaculatus

 

Woodford’s Rail (Guadalcanal) Nesoclopeus woodfordi woodfordi

 

Mangrove Rail (Fonseca) Rallus longirostris berryorum

 

Red-breasted Dotterel (Northern) Charadrius obscurus aquilonius

 

Red-breasted Dotterel (Southern) Charadrius obscurus obscurus

 

Three-banded Plover (African) Charadrius tricollaris tricollaris

 

Three-banded Plover (Madagascar) Charadrius tricollaris bifrontatus

 

Painted Buttonquail (New Caledonian) Turnix varius novaecaledoniae

 

Painted Buttonquail (Painted) Turnix varius varius/scintillans

 

Metallic Pigeon (Metallic) Columba vitiensis [vitiensis Group]

 

Metallic Pigeon (Samoan) Columba vitiensis castaneiceps

 

Eurasian Collared-Dove (Eurasian) Streptopelia decaocto decaocto

 

Eurasian Collared-Dove (Burmese) Streptopelia decaocto xanthocycla

 

Bronze Ground-Dove (Western) Alopecoenas beccarii beccarii

 

Bronze Ground-Dove (Eastern) Alopecoenas beccarii [johannae Group]

 

Spinifex Pigeon (Rufous-bellied) Geophaps plumifera ferruginea

 

Spinifex Pigeon (White-bellied) Geophaps plumifera plumifera/leucogaster

 

Pheasant Pigeon (Green-naped) Otidiphaps nobilis nobilis

 

Pheasant Pigeon (White-naped) Otidiphaps nobilis aruensis

 

Pheasant Pigeon (Gray-naped) Otidiphaps nobilis cervicalis

 

Pheasant Pigeon (Black-naped) Otidiphaps nobilis insularis

 

Southern Crowned-Pigeon (Sclater’s) Goura scheepmakeri sclaterii

 

Southern Crowned-Pigeon (Scheepmaker’s) Goura scheepmakeri scheepmakeri

 

African Green-Pigeon (African) Treron calvus [calvus Group]

 

African Green-Pigeon (Gray-breasted) Treron calvus delalandii/granti

 

Red-eared Fruit-Dove (Red-eared) Ptilinopus fischeri fischeri/centralis

 

Red-eared Fruit-Dove (Lompobattang) Ptilinopus fischeri meridionalis

 

Ornate Fruit-Dove (Western) Ptilinopus ornatus ornatus

 

Ornate Fruit-Dove (Eastern) Ptilinopus ornatus gestroi

 

Crimson-crowned Fruit-Dove (Tongan) Ptilinopus porphyraceus porphyraceus

 

Crimson-crowned Fruit-Dove (Samoan) Ptilinopus porphyraceus fasciatus

 

Yellow-bibbed Fruit-Dove (Geelvink) Ptilinopus solomonensis speciosus

 

Yellow-bibbed Fruit-Dove (Yellow-banded) Ptilinopus solomonensis [solomonensis Group]

 

Bare-faced Go-away-bird (Brown-faced) Corythaixoides personatus personatus

 

Bare-faced Go-away-bird (Black-faced) Corythaixoides personatus leopoldi

 

Crested Coua (Crested) Coua cristata [cristata Group]

 

Crested Coua (Chestnut-vented) Coua cristata pyropyga

 

Chestnut-breasted Malkoha (Mentawai) Phaenicophaeus curvirostris oeneicaudus

 

Chestnut-breasted Malkoha (Chestnut-breasted) Phaenicophaeus curvirostris [curvirostris

Group]

 

Hantu Boobook (Buru) Ninox squamipila hantu

 

Hantu Boobook (Seram) Ninox squamipila squamipila

 

Solomons Boobook (West Solomons) Ninox jacquinoti [jacquinoti Group]

 

Solomons Boobook (Guadalcanal) Ninox jacquinoti granti

 

Solomons Boobook (Malaita) Ninox jacquinoti malaitae

 

Solomons Boobook (Makira) Ninox jacquinoti roseoaxillaris

 

Straight-billed Hermit (bourcieri) Phaethornis bourcieri bourcieri

 

Straight-billed Hermit (major) Phaethornis bourcieri major

 

Gray-chinned Hermit (Gray-chinned) Phaethornis griseogularis griseogularis/zonura

 

Gray-chinned Hermit (Porculla) Phaethornis griseogularis porcullae

 

Wedge-billed Hummingbird (Eastern) Schistes geoffroyi geoffroyi/chapmani

 

Wedge-billed Hummingbird (Western) Schistes geoffroyi albogularis

 

Antillean Mango (Hispaniolan) Anthracothorax dominicus dominicus

 

Antillean Mango (Puerto Rican) Anthracothorax dominicus aurulentus

 

Festive Coquette (Butterfly) Lophornis chalybeus verreauxii/klagesi

 

Festive Coquette (Festive) Lophornis chalybeus chalybeus

 

Bearded Mountaineer (Western) Oreonympha nobilis albolimbata

 

Bearded Mountaineer (Eastern) Oreonympha nobilis nobilis

 

Violet-throated Starfrontlet (Huanuco) Coeligena violifer dichroura

 

Violet-throated Starfrontlet (Apurimac) Coeligena violifer albicaudata

 

Violet-throated Starfrontlet (Cuzco) Coeligena violifer osculans

 

Violet-throated Starfrontlet (Bolivian) Coeligena violifer violifer

 

Booted Racket-tail (White-booted) Ocreatus underwoodii [underwoodii Group]

 

Booted Racket-tail (Peruvian) Ocreatus underwoodii peruanus

 

Booted Racket-tail (Anna’s) Ocreatus underwoodii annae

 

Booted Racket-tail (Adda’s) Ocreatus underwoodii addae

 

White-tailed Hillstar (Rufous-gaped) Urochroa bougueri bougueri

 

White-tailed Hillstar (White-tailed) Urochroa bougueri leucura

 

Black-throated Brilliant (Black-throated) Heliodoxa schreibersii schreibersii

 

Black-throated Brilliant (Black-breasted) Heliodoxa schreibersii whitelyana

 

Brace’s Emerald (Brace’s) Chlorostilbon bracei bracei

 

Brace’s Emerald (Caribbean) Chlorostilbon bracei elegans

 

Gray-breasted Sabrewing (largipennis) Campylopterus largipennis largipennis

 

Gray-breasted Sabrewing (obscurus) Campylopterus largipennis obscurus

 

Gray-breasted Sabrewing (Dry Forest) Campylopterus largipennis calcirupicola

 

Gray-breasted Sabrewing (diamantinensis) Campylopterus largipennis diamantinensis

 

Sapphire-spangled Emerald (Sapphire-spangled) Amazilia lactea lactea/zimmeri

 

Sapphire-spangled Emerald (Spot-vented) Amazilia lactea bartletti

 

Berylline Hummingbird (Northern) Amazilia beryllina beryllina/viola

 

Berylline Hummingbird (Sumichrast’s) Amazilia beryllina [devillei Group]

 

Black Dwarf Hornbill (Western) Horizocerus hartlaubi hartlaubi

 

Black Dwarf Hornbill (Eastern) Horizocerus hartlaubi granti

 

Blue-banded Kingfisher (Malay) Alcedo euryzona peninsulae

 

Blue-banded Kingfisher (Javan) Alcedo euryzona euryzona

 

Banded Kingfisher (Banded) Lacedo pulchella [pulchella Group]

 

Banded Kingfisher (Black-faced) Lacedo pulchella melanops

 

Lilac-cheeked Kingfisher (Sangihe) Cittura cyanotis sanghirensis

 

Lilac-cheeked Kingfisher (Sulawesi) Cittura cyanotis cyanotis

 

Moustached Kingfisher (Bougainville) Actenoides bougainvillei bougainvillei

 

Moustached Kingfisher (Guadalcanal) Actenoides bougainvillei excelsus

 

Green-backed Kingfisher (Blue-headed) Actenoides monachus monachus

 

Green-backed Kingfisher (Black-headed) Actenoides monachus capucinus

 

Scaly-breasted Kingfisher (Scaly-breasted) Actenoides princeps princeps/erythrorhamphus

 

Scaly-breasted Kingfisher (Plain-backed) Actenoides princeps regalis

 

Lilac-breasted Roller (Blue-breasted) Coracias caudatus lorti

 

Lilac-breasted Roller (Lilac-breasted) Coracias caudatus caudatus

 

Pied Puffbird (Lesser) Notharchus tectus subtectus

 

Pied Puffbird (Greater) Notharchus tectus tectus/picatus

 

Crescent-chested Puffbird (Lesser) Malacoptila striata minor

 

Crescent-chested Puffbird (Greater) Malacoptila striata striata

 

Yellow-billed Jacamar (Yellow-billed) Galbula albirostris albirostris

 

Yellow-billed Jacamar (Cerise-crowned) Galbula albirostris chalcocephala

 

Gray-throated Barbet (Gray-throated) Gymnobucco bonapartei bonapartei

 

Gray-throated Barbet (Gray-headed) Gymnobucco bonapartei cinereiceps

 

Naked-faced Barbet (Naked-faced) Gymnobucco calvus calvus/congicus

 

Naked-faced Barbet (Pale-throated) Gymnobucco calvus vernayi

 

White-eared Barbet (White-lined) Stactolaema leucotis leucogrammica

 

White-eared Barbet (White-eared) Stactolaema leucotis leucotis/kilimensis

 

Blue-eared Barbet (Blue-eared) Psilopogon duvaucelii cyanotis/orientalis

 

Blue-eared Barbet (Black-eared) Psilopogon duvaucelii [duvaucelii Group]

 

Lemon-throated Barbet (Lemon-throated) Eubucco richardsoni richardsoni/nigriceps

 

Lemon-throated Barbet (Flame-throated) Eubucco richardsoni aurantiicollis/purusianus

 

Versicolored Barbet (Blue-cowled) Eubucco versicolor steerii

 

Versicolored Barbet (Blue-chinned) Eubucco versicolor glaucogularis

 

Versicolored Barbet (Blue-moustached) Eubucco versicolor versicolor

 

Lettered Aracari (Humboldt’s) Pteroglossus inscriptus humboldti

 

Lettered Aracari (Lettered) Pteroglossus inscriptus inscriptus

 

Red-necked Aracari (Western) Pteroglossus bitorquatus sturmii

 

Red-necked Aracari (Eastern) Pteroglossus bitorquatus bitorquatus/reichenowi

 

Golden-collared Toucanet (Red-billed) Selenidera reinwardtii reinwardtii

 

Golden-collared Toucanet (Green-billed) Selenidera reinwardtii langsdorffii

 

White-throated Toucan (Red-billed) Ramphastos tucanus tucanus

 

White-throated Toucan (Cuvier’s) Ramphastos tucanus cuvieri/inca

 

White-barred Piculet (Marajo) Picumnus cirratus macconnelli/confusus

 

White-barred Piculet (White-barred) Picumnus cirratus [cirratus Group]

 

Crimson-mantled Woodpecker (Crimson-mantled) Colaptes rivolii [rivolii Group]

 

Crimson-mantled Woodpecker (Black-crowned) Colaptes rivolii atriceps

 

Green-barred Woodpecker (Green-barred) Colaptes melanochloros melanochloros/nattereri

 

Green-barred Woodpecker (Golden-breasted) Colaptes melanochloros [melanolaimus Group]

 

Andean Flicker (Northern) Colaptes rupicola cinereicapillus

 

Andean Flicker (Southern) Colaptes rupicola rupicola/puna

 

Lineated Woodpecker (Lineated) Dryocopus lineatus [lineatus Group]

 

Lineated Woodpecker (Dusky-winged) Dryocopus lineatus fuscipennis

 

Checker-throated Woodpecker (Checker-throated) Picus mentalis humii

 

Checker-throated Woodpecker (Javan) Picus mentalis mentalis

 

Buff-rumped Woodpecker (Buff-rumped) Meiglyptes tristis grammithorax

 

Buff-rumped Woodpecker (White-rumped) Meiglyptes tristis tristis

 

Gray-and-buff Woodpecker (Gray-and-buff) Hemicircus concretus sordidus

 

Gray-and-buff Woodpecker (Red-crested) Hemicircus concretus concretus

 

Blue-rumped Parrot (Blue-rumped) Psittinus cyanurus cyanurus/pontius

 

Blue-rumped Parrot (Simeulue) Psittinus cyanurus abbotti

 

Double-eyed Fig-Parrot (Double-eyed) Cyclopsitta diophthalma [diophthalma Group]

 

Double-eyed Fig-Parrot (Coxen’s) Cyclopsitta diophthalma coxeni

 

Large Fig-Parrot (Large) Psittaculirostris desmarestii [desmarestii Group]

 

Large Fig-Parrot (Yellow-naped) Psittaculirostris desmarestii godmani

 

Large Fig-Parrot (Red-faced) Psittaculirostris desmarestii cervicalis

 

Yellow-and-green Lorikeet (Mustard-capped) Trichoglossus flavoviridis meyeri

 

Yellow-and-green Lorikeet (Yellow-and-green) Trichoglossus flavoviridis flavoviridis

 

Festive Parrot (Northern) Amazona festiva bodini

 

Festive Parrot (Southern) Amazona festiva festiva

 

Mealy Parrot (Northern) Amazona farinosa guatemalae/virenticeps

 

Mealy Parrot (Southern) Amazona farinosa farinosa

 

White-bellied Parrot (Black-legged) Pionites leucogaster xanthomerius

 

White-bellied Parrot (Yellow-tailed) Pionites leucogaster xanthurus

 

White-bellied Parrot (Green-thighed) Pionites leucogaster leucogaster

 

Red-shouldered Macaw (Northern) Diopsittaca nobilis nobilis

 

Red-shouldered Macaw (Southern) Diopsittaca nobilis cumanensis/longipennis

 

Black-and-red Broadbill (Irrawaddy) Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos affinis

 

Black-and-red Broadbill (Black-and-red) Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos [macrorhynchos

Group]

 

Silver-breasted Broadbill (Gray-browed) Serilophus lunatus rubropygius

 

Silver-breasted Broadbill (Silver-breasted) Serilophus lunatus [lunatus Group]

 

Banded Broadbill (Banded) Eurylaimus javanicus [harterti Group]

 

Banded Broadbill (Javan) Eurylaimus javanicus javanicus

 

Ivory-breasted Pitta (Ivory-breasted) Pitta maxima maxima

 

Ivory-breasted Pitta (Morotai) Pitta maxima morotaiensis

 

Black-crested Antshrike (Streak-fronted) Sakesphorus canadensis pulchellus

 

Black-crested Antshrike (Black-crested) Sakesphorus canadensis [canadensis Group]

 

Rufous-capped Antshrike (Northern) Thamnophilus ruficapillus [subfasciatus Group]

 

Rufous-capped Antshrike (Southern) Thamnophilus ruficapillus ruficapillus/cochabambae

 

Ornate Antwren (Western) Epinecrophylla ornata [ornata Group]

 

Ornate Antwren (Eastern) Epinecrophylla ornata hoffmannsi

 

Rufous-winged Antwren (Northern) Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus [scapularis Group]

 

Rufous-winged Antwren (Southern) Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus rufimarginatus

 

Dusky Antbird (tyrannina/crepera) Cercomacroides tyrannina tyrannina/crepera

 

Dusky Antbird (saturatior/vicina) Cercomacroides tyrannina saturatior/vicina

 

Chestnut-backed Antbird (Chestnut-backed) Poliocrania exsul [exsul Group]

 

Chestnut-backed Antbird (Short-tailed) Poliocrania exsul maculifer/cassini

 

Collared Crescentchest (Double-collared) Melanopareia torquata bitorquata

 

Collared Crescentchest (Collared) Melanopareia torquata torquata/rufescens

 

Tawny Antpitta (Northern) Grallaria quitensis alticola

 

Tawny Antpitta (Western) Grallaria quitensis quitensis

 

Tawny Antpitta (Southern) Grallaria quitensis atuensis

 

Long-tailed Woodcreeper (Little) Deconychura longicauda [typica Group]

 

Long-tailed Woodcreeper (Northern) Deconychura longicauda longicauda

 

Long-tailed Woodcreeper (Southern) Deconychura longicauda [pallida Group]

 

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper (pectoralis Group) Glyphorynchus spirurus [pectoralis Group]

 

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper (spirurus Group) Glyphorynchus spirurus [spirurus Group]

 

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper (albigularis) Glyphorynchus spirurus albigularis

 

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper (cuneatus Group) Glyphorynchus spirurus [cuneatus Group]

 

Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper (devillei) Dendrexetastes rufigula devillei

 

Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper (rufigula) Dendrexetastes rufigula rufigula

 

Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper (paraensis/moniliger) Dendrexetastes rufigula paraensis/moniliger

 

Spot-crowned Woodcreeper (Northern) Lepidocolaptes affinis affinis/lignicida

 

Spot-crowned Woodcreeper (Southern) Lepidocolaptes affinis neglectus

 

Plain Xenops (mexicanus Group) Xenops minutus [mexicanus Group]

 

Plain Xenops (genibarbis Group) Xenops minutus [genibarbis Group]

 

Plain Xenops (White-throated) Xenops minutus minutus

 

Blackish Cinclodes (Black) Cinclodes antarcticus maculirostris

 

Blackish Cinclodes (Blackish) Cinclodes antarcticus antarcticus

 

Pale-browed Treehunter (Pale-tailed) Cichlocolaptes leucophrus leucophrus

 

Pale-browed Treehunter (Rufous-tailed) Cichlocolaptes leucophrus holti

 

Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner (turdinus) Automolus ochrolaemus turdinus

 

Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner (ochrolaemus) Automolus ochrolaemus ochrolaemus

 

Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner (auricularis) Automolus ochrolaemus auricularis

 

White-throated Barbtail (White-throated) Premnoplex tatei tatei

 

White-throated Barbtail (Paria) Premnoplex tatei pariae

 

Marcapata Spinetail (Pale-crowned) Cranioleuca marcapatae weskei

 

Marcapata Spinetail (Rufous-crowned) Cranioleuca marcapatae marcapatae

 

Light-crowned Spinetail (White-crowned) Cranioleuca albiceps albiceps

 

Light-crowned Spinetail (Buffy-crowned) Cranioleuca albiceps discolor

 

Greater Antillean Elaenia (Jamaican) Elaenia fallax fallax

 

Greater Antillean Elaenia (Hispaniolan) Elaenia fallax cherriei

 

Highland Elaenia (Highland) Elaenia obscura obscura

 

Highland Elaenia (Brazilian) Elaenia obscura sordida

 

Olive-striped Flycatcher (Olive-streaked) Mionectes olivaceus olivaceus

 

Olive-striped Flycatcher (Olive-striped) Mionectes olivaceus [galbinus Group]

 

Slaty-capped Flycatcher (transandinus) Leptopogon superciliaris transandinus

 

Ornate Flycatcher (Western) Myiotriccus ornatus ornatus/stellatus

 

Ornate Flycatcher (Eastern) Myiotriccus ornatus phoenicurus/aureiventris

 

Bronze-olive Pygmy-Tyrant (annectens/berlepschi) Pseudotriccus pelzelni annectens/berlepschi

 

Bronze-olive Pygmy-Tyrant (pelzelni/peruvianus) Pseudotriccus pelzelni pelzelni/peruvianus

 

Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant (Tawny-crowned) Euscarthmus meloryphus meloryphus/paulus

 

Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant (Tawny-fronted) Euscarthmus meloryphus fulviceps

 

Olivaceous Flatbill (Western) Rhynchocyclus olivaceus [aequinoctialis Group]

 

Olivaceous Flatbill (Eastern) Rhynchocyclus olivaceus [olivaceus Group]

 

White-throated Spadebill (Western) Platyrinchus mystaceus [albogularis Group]

 

White-throated Spadebill (Eastern) Platyrinchus mystaceus [mystaceus Group]

 

Cliff Flycatcher (Cliff) Hirundinea ferruginea ferruginea/sclateri

 

Cliff Flycatcher (Swallow) Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa/pallidior

 

Greater Pewee (Mexican) Contopus pertinax pertinax

 

Greater Pewee (Central American) Contopus pertinax minor

 

Riverside Tyrant (Riverside) Knipolegus orenocensis orenocensis/xinguensis

 

Riverside Tyrant (Sclater’s) Knipolegus orenocensis sclateri

 

White-winged Black-Tyrant (White-rumped) Knipolegus aterrimus heterogyna

 

White-winged Black-Tyrant (White-winged) Knipolegus aterrimus aterrimus/anthracinus

 

Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant (Brown-backed) Ochthoeca fumicolor [fumicolor Group]

 

Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant (Rufous-browed) Ochthoeca fumicolor superciliosa

 

Green Manakin (Choco) Cryptopipo holochlora litae/suffusa

 

Green Manakin (Green) Cryptopipo holochlora holochlora/viridior

 

Black-tailed Tityra (Eastern) Tityra cayana braziliensis

 

Black-tailed Tityra (Western) Tityra cayana cayana

 

Gray-collared Becard (Eastern) Pachyramphus major [major Group]

 

Gray-collared Becard (Western) Pachyramphus major uropygialis

 

Dusky Myzomela (Red-brown) Myzomela obscura rubrobrunnea

 

Dusky Myzomela (Obi) Myzomela obscura rubrotincta

 

Dusky Myzomela (Moluccan) Myzomela obscura simplex/mortyana

 

Dusky Myzomela (Dusky) Myzomela obscura [obscura Group]

 

Red Myzomela (Red) Myzomela cruentata cruentata/coccinea

 

Red Myzomela (Reddish) Myzomela cruentata [erythrina Group]

 

Sulawesi Myzomela (Sulawesi) Myzomela chloroptera [chloroptera Group]

 

Sulawesi Myzomela (Bacan) Myzomela chloroptera batjanensis

 

Wakolo Myzomela (Seram) Myzomela wakoloensis elisabethae

 

Wakolo Myzomela (Buru) Myzomela wakoloensis wakoloensis

 

Red-collared Myzomela (Red-collared) Myzomela rosenbergii rosenbergii/wahgiensis

 

Red-collared Myzomela (Long-billed) Myzomela rosenbergii longirostris

 

Blue-faced Honeyeater (White-quilled) Entomyzon cyanotis albipennis

 

Blue-faced Honeyeater (Blue-faced) Entomyzon cyanotis [cyanotis Group]

 

Fan-tailed Gerygone (Fan-tailed) Gerygone flavolateralis [flavolateralis Group]

 

Fan-tailed Gerygone (Rennell) Gerygone flavolateralis citrina

 

Crested Satinbird (Red) Cnemophilus macgregorii sanguineus

 

Crested Satinbird (Yellow) Cnemophilus macgregorii macgregorii

 

Spotted Berrypecker (Thick-billed) Melanocharis crassirostris crassirostris

 

Spotted Berrypecker (Spotted) Melanocharis crassirostris piperata/viridescens

 

Crested Berrypecker (Eastern) Paramythia montium montium/brevicauda

 

Crested Berrypecker (Western) Paramythia montium olivacea/alpina

 

Western Whipbird (Black-throated) Psophodes nigrogularis nigrogularis/oberon

 

Western Whipbird (White-bellied) Psophodes nigrogularis leucogaster/lashmari

 

Gray-chinned Minivet (Gray-chinned) Pericrocotus solaris [solaris Group]

 

Gray-chinned Minivet (Gray-throated) Pericrocotus solaris montanus/cinereigula

 

Large Cuckooshrike (Indian) Coracina macei macei/layardi

 

Large Cuckooshrike (Large) Coracina macei [nipalensis Group]

 

Large Cuckooshrike (Malay) Coracina macei larutensis

 

Bar-bellied Cuckooshrike (Bar-bellied) Coracina striata [striata Group]

 

Bar-bellied Cuckooshrike (Visayan) Coracina striata panayensis

 

Black-and-white Triller (Northern) Lalage melanoleuca melanoleuca

 

Black-and-white Triller (Southern) Lalage melanoleuca minor

 

Solomons Cuckooshrike (Solomon) Edolisoma holopolium holopolium/tricolor

 

Solomons Cuckooshrike (New Georgia) Edolisoma holopolium pygmaeum

 

Rusty-breasted Whistler (Salayar) Pachycephala fulvotincta teysmanni

 

Rusty-breasted Whistler (Rusty-breasted) Pachycephala fulvotincta [fulvotincta Group]

 

Chinese Gray Shrike (Chinese) Lanius sphenocercus sphenocercus

 

Chinese Gray Shrike (Giant) Lanius sphenocercus giganteus

 

Scrub Greenlet (Yellow-green) Hylophilus flavipes viridiflavus/xuthus

 

Scrub Greenlet (Scrub) Hylophilus flavipes [flavipes Group]

 

Scrub Greenlet (Tobago) Hylophilus flavipes insularis

 

Lemon-chested Greenlet (Lemon-chested) Hylophilus thoracicus griseiventris/aemulus

 

Lemon-chested Greenlet (Rio de Janeiro) Hylophilus thoracicus thoracicus

 

Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo (Pale-legged) Vireolanius leucotis mikettae

 

Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo (Slaty-capped) Vireolanius leucotis [leucotis Group]

 

Tawny-crowned Greenlet (Rufous-fronted) Tunchiornis ochraceiceps ferrugineifrons/viridior

 

Tawny-crowned Greenlet (Olive-crowned) Tunchiornis ochraceiceps luteifrons

 

Timor Oriole (Timor) Oriolus melanotis melanotis

 

Timor Oriole (Wetar) Oriolus melanotis finschi

 

Black-and-crimson Oriole (Black-and-crimson) Oriolus cruentus [consanguineus Group]

 

Black-and-crimson Oriole (Javan) Oriolus cruentus cruentus

 

Hair-crested Drongo (Hair-crested) Dicrurus hottentottus [hottentottus Group]

 

Hair-crested Drongo (Short-tailed) Dicrurus hottentottus striatus/samarensis

 

Northern Fantail (Seram) Rhipidura rufiventris cinerea

 

Northern Fantail (Banda Sea) Rhipidura rufiventris hoedti

 

Northern Fantail (Biak) Rhipidura rufiventris kordensis

 

Northern Fantail (Northern) Rhipidura rufiventris isura

 

Rusty-bellied Fantail (Sulawesi) Rhipidura teysmanni teysmanni/toradja

 

Rusty-bellied Fantail (Taliabu) Rhipidura teysmanni sulaensis

 

Arafura Fantail (Supertramp) Rhipidura dryas [semicollaris Group]

 

Arafura Fantail (Arafura) Rhipidura dryas dryas

 

Brown Fantail (Bougainville) Rhipidura drownei drownei

 

Brown Fantail (Guadalcanal) Rhipidura drownei ocularis

 

Streaked Fantail (Vanuatu) Rhipidura verreauxi spilodera

 

Streaked Fantail (Fiji) Rhipidura verreauxi layardi/erythronota

 

Streaked Fantail (Taveuni) Rhipidura verreauxi rufilateralis

 

Streaked Fantail (New Caledonia) Rhipidura verreauxi verreauxi

 

African Crested-Flycatcher (Eastern) Trochocercus cyanomelas [bivittatus Group]

 

African Crested-Flycatcher (Southern) Trochocercus cyanomelas cyanomelas/segregus

 

Rufous Paradise-Flycatcher (Northern) Terpsiphone cinnamomea unirufa

 

Rufous Paradise-Flycatcher (Southern) Terpsiphone cinnamomea cinnamomea/talautensis

 

Black-tailed Monarch (Djaul) Symposiachrus verticalis ateralbus

 

Black-tailed Monarch (Black-tailed) Symposiachrus verticalis verticalis

 

Dull Flycatcher (Mussau) Myiagra hebetior hebetior

 

Dull Flycatcher (Velvet) Myiagra hebetior eichhorni

 

Dull Flycatcher (Djaul) Myiagra hebetior cervinicolor

 

Black Magpie (Malay) Platysmurus leucopterus leucopterus

 

Black Magpie (Bornean) Platysmurus leucopterus aterrimus

 

Black-collared Jay (Black-collared) Cyanolyca armillata armillata/meridana

 

Black-collared Jay (Quindio) Cyanolyca armillata quindiuna

 

Paradise-crow (Halmahera) Lycocorax pyrrhopterus pyrrhopterus/morotensis

 

Paradise-crow (Obi) Lycocorax pyrrhopterus obiensis

 

Torrent Flycatcher (Torrent) Monachella muelleriana muelleriana

 

Torrent Flycatcher (New Britain) Monachella muelleriana coultasi

 

Lemon-bellied Flycatcher (Lemon-bellied) Microeca flavigaster [flavigaster Group]

 

Lemon-bellied Flycatcher (Kimberley) Microeca flavigaster tormenti

 

Pacific Robin (Pacific) Petroica multicolor [pusilla Group]

 

Pacific Robin (Norfolk) Petroica multicolor multicolor

 

Dunn’s Lark (African) Eremalauda dunni dunni

 

Dunn’s Lark (Arabian) Eremalauda dunni eremodites

 

Common House-Martin (Western) Delichon urbicum urbicum/meridionale

 

Common House-Martin (Eastern) Delichon urbicum lagopodum

 

Plain-tailed Wren (Plain-tailed) Pheugopedius euophrys [euophrys Group]

 

Plain-tailed Wren (Gray-browed) Pheugopedius euophrys schulenbergi

 

Chestnut-breasted Wren (Northern) Cyphorhinus thoracicus dichrous

 

Chestnut-breasted Wren (Southern) Cyphorhinus thoracicus thoracicus

 

Musician Wren (Imeri) Cyphorhinus arada transfluvialis

 

Musician Wren (Gray-eared) Cyphorhinus arada salvini

 

Musician Wren (Musician) Cyphorhinus arada arada

 

Musician Wren (Gray-flanked) Cyphorhinus arada griseolateralis

 

Musician Wren (Rondonia) Cyphorhinus arada interpositus

 

Musician Wren (Ferruginous) Cyphorhinus arada modulator

 

Stripe-throated Bulbul (Pale-eyed) Pycnonotus finlaysoni davisoni

 

Stripe-throated Bulbul (Stripe-throated) Pycnonotus finlaysoni finlaysoni/eous

 

Puff-throated Bulbul (Gray-crowned) Alophoixus pallidus griseiceps

 

Puff-throated Bulbul (Puff-throated) Alophoixus pallidus [pallidus Group]

 

Ochraceous Bulbul (Ochraceous) Alophoixus ochraceus [ochraceus Group]

 

Ochraceous Bulbul (Chestnut-vented) Alophoixus ochraceus ruficrissus/fowleri

 

Gray-cheeked Bulbul (Gray-cheeked) Alophoixus bres tephrogenys/gutturalis

 

Gray-cheeked Bulbul (Brown-cheeked) Alophoixus bres bres/balicus

 

Sula Golden-Bulbul (Banggai) Alophoixus longirostris harterti

 

Sula Golden-Bulbul (Sula) Alophoixus longirostris longirostris

 

Gray-eyed Bulbul (Gray-eyed) Iole propinqua [propinqua Group]

 

Gray-eyed Bulbul (innectens) Iole propinqua innectens

 

Olive Bulbul (Olive) Iole viridescens viridescens/lekhakuni

 

Olive Bulbul (Baker’s) Iole viridescens cinnamomeoventris

 

Yellowish Bulbul (Yellowish) Hypsipetes everetti everetti/samarensis

 

Yellowish Bulbul (Sulu) Hypsipetes everetti haynaldi

 

Yellowish Bulbul (Camiguin) Hypsipetes everetti catarmanensis

 

Ashy Bulbul (Cinereous) Hemixos flavala cinereus

 

Ashy Bulbul (Green-winged) Hemixos flavala connectens

 

Sunda Bulbul (Sumatran) Ixos virescens sumatranus

 

Sunda Bulbul (Javan) Ixos virescens virescens

 

Scrub Warbler (Western) Scotocerca inquieta saharae/theresae

 

Scrub Warbler (Eastern) Scotocerca inquieta [inquieta Group]

 

Brownish-flanked Bush Warbler (Brownish-flanked) Horornis fortipes [fortipes Group]

 

Brownish-flanked Bush Warbler (Taiwan) Horornis fortipes robustipes

 

Aberrant Bush Warbler (Aberrant) Horornis flavolivaceus [flavolivaceus Group]

 

Aberrant Bush Warbler (Perplexing) Horornis flavolivaceus intricatus/oblitus

 

Sulawesi Leaf Warbler (Sulawesi) Phylloscopus sarasinorum nesophilus

 

Sulawesi Leaf Warbler (Lompobattang) Phylloscopus sarasinorum sarasinorum

 

Timor Leaf Warbler (Flores) Phylloscopus presbytes floris

 

Timor Leaf Warbler (Timor) Phylloscopus presbytes presbytes

 

Sunda Warbler (Sumatran) Seicercus grammiceps sumatrensis

 

Sunda Warbler (Javan) Seicercus grammiceps grammiceps

 

Papyrus Yellow-Warbler (Papyrus) Calamonastides gracilirostris gracilirostris

 

Papyrus Yellow-Warbler (Zambian) Calamonastides gracilirostris bensoni

 

Eurasian Reed Warbler (Siwa) Acrocephalus scirpaceus ammon

 

Fernbird (New Zealand) Megalurus punctatus [punctatus Group]

 

Fernbird (Snares) Megalurus punctatus caudatus

 

Chestnut-backed Bush Warbler (Sulawesi) Locustella castanea castanea

 

Chestnut-backed Bush Warbler (Buru) Locustella castanea disturbans

 

Chestnut-backed Bush Warbler (Seram) Locustella castanea musculus

 

Guadalcanal Thicketbird (Santo) Megalurulus whitneyi whitneyi

 

Guadalcanal Thicketbird (Guadalcanal) Megalurulus whitneyi turipavae

 

Black-throated Prinia (Black-throated) Prinia atrogularis atrogularis

 

Black-throated Prinia (Rufous-crowned) Prinia atrogularis khasiana

 

Yellow-bellied Prinia (Yellow-bellied) Prinia flaviventris [flaviventris Group]

 

Yellow-bellied Prinia (Chinese) Prinia flaviventris sonitans

 

Lesser Whitethroat (curruca/blythi) Sylvia curruca curruca/blythi

 

Lesser Whitethroat (halimodendri) Sylvia curruca halimodendri

 

Brown-winged Parrotbill (Yunnan) Sinosuthora brunnea ricketti

 

Brown-winged Parrotbill (Brown-winged) Sinosuthora brunnea brunnea/styani

 

White-breasted White-eye (Abyssinian) Zosterops abyssinicus [abyssinicus Group]

 

White-breasted White-eye (Kenya) Zosterops abyssinicus flavilateralis/jubaensis

 

Bridled White-eye (Bridled) Zosterops conspicillatus conspicillatus

 

Bridled White-eye (Saipan) Zosterops conspicillatus saypani

 

Cream-throated White-eye (Morotai) Zosterops atriceps dehaani

 

Cream-throated White-eye (Helmahera) Zosterops atriceps fuscifrons

 

Cream-throated White-eye (Bacan) Zosterops atriceps atriceps

 

Black-fronted White-eye (Black-fronted) Zosterops minor [chrysolaemus Group]

 

Black-fronted White-eye (Green-fronted) Zosterops minor minor/rothschildi

 

Gray-throated White-eye (Bougainville) Zosterops ugiensis hamlini

 

Gray-throated White-eye (Gray-throated) Zosterops ugiensis ugiensis/oblitus

 

Gray-cheeked Tit-Babbler (Gray-cheeked) Mixornis flavicollis flavicollis

 

Gray-cheeked Tit-Babbler (Kangean) Mixornis flavicollis prillwitzi

 

Chestnut-winged Babbler (Chestnut-winged) Cyanoderma erythropterum [erythropterum

Group]

 

Chestnut-winged Babbler (Gray-hooded) Cyanoderma erythropterum bicolor/rufum

 

Pale-breasted Illadopsis (Pale-breasted) Illadopsis rufipennis rufipennis/extrema

 

Pale-breasted Illadopsis (Gray-breasted) Illadopsis rufipennis distans/pugensis

 

Black-capped Babbler (Black-capped) Pellorneum capistratum [nigrocapitatum Group]

 

Black-capped Babbler (Rufous-browed) Pellorneum capistratum capistratum

 

Limestone Wren-Babbler (Grayish) Turdinus crispifrons crispifrons/annamensis

 

Limestone Wren-Babbler (Rufous) Turdinus crispifrons calcicola

 

Jungle Babbler (Jungle) Turdoides striata [striata Group]

 

Jungle Babbler (Black-winged) Turdoides striata somervillei

 

Moustached Laughingthrush (Western) Ianthocincla cineracea cineracea/strenua

 

Moustached Laughingthrush (Eastern) Ianthocincla cineracea cinereiceps

 

Black-throated Laughingthrush (Black-throated) Ianthocincla chinensis [chinensis Group]

 

Black-throated Laughingthrush (Hainan) Ianthocincla chinensis monachus

 

Silver-eared Mesia (Silver-eared) Leiothrix argentauris [argentauris Group]

 

Silver-eared Mesia (Sumatran) Leiothrix argentauris laurinae/rookmakeri

 

Spectacled Barwing (Eastern) Actinodura ramsayi radcliffei/yunnanensis

 

Spectacled Barwing (Western) Actinodura ramsayi ramsayi

 

Asian Fairy-bluebird (Asian) Irena puella [puella Group]

 

Asian Fairy-bluebird (Palawan) Irena puella tweeddalii

 

Brown-streaked Flycatcher (Brown-streaked) Muscicapa williamsoni williamsoni

 

Brown-streaked Flycatcher (Umber) Muscicapa williamsoni umbrosa

 

Oriental Magpie-Robin (Oriental) Copsychus saularis [saularis Group]

 

Oriental Magpie-Robin (Black) Copsychus saularis [amoenus Group]

 

White-rumped Shama (Barusan) Copsychus malabaricus [melanurus Group]

 

Blue-breasted Flycatcher (Blue-breasted) Cyornis herioti herioti

 

Blue-breasted Flycatcher (Rufous-breasted) Cyornis herioti camarinensis

 

Pale Blue Flycatcher (Unicolored) Cyornis unicolor unicolor

 

Pale Blue Flycatcher (Diao Luo) Cyornis unicolor diaoluoensis

 

Pale Blue Flycatcher (Hartert’s) Cyornis unicolor harterti

 

Tickell’s Blue Flycatcher (Tickell’s) Cyornis tickelliae tickelliae/jerdoni

 

Tickell’s Blue Flycatcher (Indochinese) Cyornis tickelliae [sumatrensis Group]

 

Flores Jungle-Flycatcher (Russet-backed) Cyornis oscillans oscillans

 

Flores Jungle-Flycatcher (Sumba) Cyornis oscillans stresemanni

 

Chestnut-tailed Jungle-Flycatcher (Philippine) Cyornis ruficauda [ruficauda Group]

 

Chestnut-tailed Jungle-Flycatcher (Sulu) Cyornis ruficauda ocularis

 

Chestnut-tailed Jungle-Flycatcher (Crocker) Cyornis ruficauda ruficrissa/isola

 

Vivid Niltava (Large) Niltava vivida oatesi

 

Vivid Niltava (Small) Niltava vivida vivida

 

Indigo Flycatcher (Rufous-vented) Eumyias indigo ruficrissa/cerviniventris

 

Indigo Flycatcher (Javan) Eumyias indigo indigo

 

Great Shortwing (Minahasa) Heinrichia calligyna simplex

 

Great Shortwing (Great) Heinrichia calligyna calligyna/picta

 

White-browed Shortwing (Himalayan) Brachypteryx montana cruralis

 

White-browed Shortwing (Chinese) Brachypteryx montana sinensis

 

White-browed Shortwing (Taiwan) Brachypteryx montana goodfellowi

 

White-browed Shortwing (Philippine) Brachypteryx montana [poliogyna Group]

 

White-browed Shortwing (Bornean) Brachypteryx montana erythrogyna

 

White-browed Shortwing (Sumatran) Brachypteryx montana saturata

 

White-browed Shortwing (Javan) Brachypteryx montana montana

 

White-browed Shortwing (Flores) Brachypteryx montana floris

 

Japanese Robin (Japanese) Larvivora akahige akahige/rishirensis

 

Japanese Robin (Izu) Larvivora akahige tanensis

 

Ryukyu Robin (Ryukyu) Larvivora komadori komadori/subrufus

 

Ryukyu Robin (Okinawa) Larvivora komadori namiyei

 

White-crowned Forktail (White-crowned) Enicurus leschenaulti [frontalis Group]

 

White-crowned Forktail (Javan) Enicurus leschenaulti leschenaulti

 

White-tailed Robin (White-tailed) Myiomela leucura leucura/montium

 

White-tailed Robin (Cambodian) Myiomela leucura cambodiana

 

Sunda Robin (Sumatran) Myiomela diana sumatrana

 

Sunda Robin (Javan) Myiomela diana diana

 

Red-breasted Wheatear (Buff-breasted) Oenanthe bottae bottae

 

Red-breasted Wheatear (Rusty-breasted) Oenanthe bottae frenata

 

Orange-headed Thrush (Orange-headed) Geokichla citrina [citrina Group]

 

Orange-headed Thrush (White-throated) Geokichla citrina cyanota

 

Orange-headed Thrush (Plain-winged) Geokichla citrina albogularis/andamanensis

 

Orange-headed Thrush (Buff-throated) Geokichla citrina [aurimacula Group]

 

Andean Solitaire (plumbeiceps) Myadestes ralloides plumbeiceps

 

Andean Solitaire (venezuelensis/candelae) Myadestes ralloides venezuelensis/candelae

 

Andean Solitaire (ralloides) Myadestes ralloides ralloides

 

Spotted Nightingale-Thrush (Gould’s) Catharus dryas dryas/ovandensis

 

Spotted Nightingale-Thrush (Sclater’s) Catharus dryas maculatus/blakei

 

Rufous-brown Solitaire (Chestnut-throated) Cichlopsis leucogenys chubbi

 

Rufous-brown Solitaire (Peruvian) Cichlopsis leucogenys peruviana

 

Rufous-brown Solitaire (Guianan) Cichlopsis leucogenys gularis

 

Rufous-brown Solitaire (Rufous-brown) Cichlopsis leucogenys leucogenys

 

Black-billed Thrush (Pantepui) Turdus ignobilis murinus

 

White-necked Myna (Northern) Streptocitta albicollis torquata

 

White-necked Myna (Southern) Streptocitta albicollis albicollis

 

Asian Pied Starling (Asian) Gracupica contra [contra Group]

 

Asian Pied Starling (Javan) Gracupica contra jalla

 

Vinous-breasted Starling (Burmese) Acridotheres burmannicus burmannicus

 

Vinous-breasted Starling (Vinous-breasted) Acridotheres burmannicus leucocephalus

 

Black-winged Starling (Black-winged) Acridotheres melanopterus melanopterus

 

Black-winged Starling (Gray-backed) Acridotheres melanopterus tricolor

 

Black-winged Starling (Gray-rumped) Acridotheres melanopterus tertius

 

Blue-winged Leafbird (Blue-winged) Chloropsis cochinchinensis [moluccensis Group]

 

Blue-winged Leafbird (Javan) Chloropsis cochinchinensis cochinchinensis

 

Orange-bellied Leafbird (Orange-bellied) Chloropsis hardwickii hardwickii/malayana

 

Orange-bellied Leafbird (Grayish-crowned) Chloropsis hardwickii lazulina/melliana

 

Flame-crowned Flowerpecker (Yellow-crowned) Dicaeum anthonyi anthonyi

 

Flame-crowned Flowerpecker (Flame-crowned) Dicaeum anthonyi kampalili/masawan

 

Fire-breasted Flowerpecker (Fire-breasted) Dicaeum ignipectus [ignipectus Group]

 

Fire-breasted Flowerpecker (Cambodian) Dicaeum ignipectus cambodianum

 

Fire-breasted Flowerpecker (Fire-throated) Dicaeum ignipectus [luzoniense Group]

 

Fire-breasted Flowerpecker (Sumatran) Dicaeum ignipectus beccarii

 

Blood-breasted Flowerpecker (Blood-breasted) Dicaeum sanguinolentum

sanguinolentum/rhodopygiale

 

Blood-breasted Flowerpecker (Sumba) Dicaeum sanguinolentum wilhelminae

 

Blood-breasted Flowerpecker (Timor) Dicaeum sanguinolentum hanieli

 

Mistletoebird (Pink-breasted) Dicaeum hirundinaceum keiense/fulgidum

 

Mistletoebird (Aru) Dicaeum hirundinaceum ignicolle

 

Mistletoebird (Mistletoebird) Dicaeum hirundinaceum hirundinaceum

 

Purple-throated Sunbird (Purple-throated) Leptocoma sperata [sperata Group]

 

Purple-throated Sunbird (Orange-lined) Leptocoma sperata juliae

 

Miombo Sunbird (Western) Cinnyris manoensis pintoi

 

Miombo Sunbird (Eastern) Cinnyris manoensis manoensis/amicorum

 

Beautiful Sunbird (Beautiful) Cinnyris pulchellus pulchellus

 

Beautiful Sunbird (Gorgeous) Cinnyris pulchellus melanogastrus

 

Shining Sunbird (Shining) Cinnyris habessinicus [habessinicus Group]

 

Shining Sunbird (Arabian) Cinnyris habessinicus hellmayri/kinneari

 

Madagascar Sunbird (Grand Comoro) Cinnyris notatus moebii

 

Madagascar Sunbird (Moheli) Cinnyris notatus voeltzkowi

 

Madagascar Sunbird (Long-billed) Cinnyris notatus notatus

 

Fork-tailed Sunbird (Fork-tailed) Aethopyga christinae latouchii/sokolovi

 

Fork-tailed Sunbird (Hainan) Aethopyga christinae christinae

 

Western Yellow Wagtail (flavissima) Motacilla flava flavissima

 

Western Yellow Wagtail (lutea) Motacilla flava lutea

 

Western Yellow Wagtail (flava) Motacilla flava flava

 

Western Yellow Wagtail (beema) Motacilla flava beema

 

Western Yellow Wagtail (iberiae) Motacilla flava iberiae

 

Western Yellow Wagtail (cinereocapilla) Motacilla flava cinereocapilla

 

Western Yellow Wagtail (pygmaea) Motacilla flava pygmaea

 

Hylocitrea (Northern) Hylocitrea bonensis bonensis

 

Hylocitrea (Southern) Hylocitrea bonensis bonthaina

 

Olive-crowned Yellowthroat (Baird’s) Geothlypis semiflava bairdi

 

Olive-crowned Yellowthroat (Olive-crowned) Geothlypis semiflava semiflava

 

Citrine Warbler (Northern) Myiothlypis luteoviridis [luteoviridis Group]

 

Citrine Warbler (Peruvian) Myiothlypis luteoviridis striaticeps

 

Citrine Warbler (Bolivian) Myiothlypis luteoviridis euophrys

 

Golden-fronted Redstart (Golden-fronted) Myioborus ornatus chrysops

 

Golden-fronted Redstart (Yellow-fronted) Myioborus ornatus ornatus

 

Ringed Warbling-Finch (Ringed) Microspingus torquatus torquatus

 

Ringed Warbling-Finch (Black-breasted) Microspingus torquatus pectoralis

 

Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager (Scarlet-bellied) Anisognathus igniventris [lunulatus Group]

 

Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager (Fire-bellied) Anisognathus igniventris igniventris

 

Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager (Blue-winged) Anisognathus somptuosus [somptuosus Group]

 

Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager (Bolivian) Anisognathus somptuosus flavinucha

 

Blue-and-yellow Tanager (Green-mantled) Pipraeidea bonariensis darwinii

 

Blue-and-yellow Tanager (Blue-and-yellow) Pipraeidea bonariensis [bonariensis Group]

 

Orange-eared Tanager (Orange-eared) Chlorochrysa calliparaea calliparaea/bourcieri

 

Orange-eared Tanager (Blue-throated) Chlorochrysa calliparaea fulgentissima

 

Golden-naped Tanager (Golden-naped) Tangara ruficervix [ruficervix Group]

 

Golden-naped Tanager (Rusty-naped) Tangara ruficervix [fulvicervix Group]

 

Black-headed Tanager (Black-headed) Tangara cyanoptera cyanoptera

 

Black-headed Tanager (Black-hooded) Tangara cyanoptera whitelyi

 

Lesser Antillean Tanager (St. Vincent) Tangara cucullata versicolor

 

Lesser Antillean Tanager (Grenada) Tangara cucullata cucullata

 

Blue-and-black Tanager (Blue-and-black) Tangara vassorii vassorii/branickii

 

Blue-and-black Tanager (Spot-bellied) Tangara vassorii atrocoerulea

 

Flame-faced Tanager (Flame-faced) Tangara parzudakii parzudakii/urubambae

 

Flame-faced Tanager (Yellow-faced) Tangara parzudakii lunigera

 

Cinereous Conebill (Ochraceous) Conirostrum cinereum fraseri

 

Cinereous Conebill (Cinereous) Conirostrum cinereum cinereum/littorale

 

Orange-billed Sparrow (aurantiirostris Group) Arremon aurantiirostris [aurantiirostris Group]

 

Orange-billed Sparrow (erythrorhynchus) Arremon aurantiirostris erythrorhynchus

 

Orange-billed Sparrow (spectabilis) Arremon aurantiirostris spectabilis

 

Black-capped Sparrow (Black-capped) Arremon abeillei abeillei

 

Black-capped Sparrow (Marañon) Arremon abeillei nigriceps

 

Pectoral Sparrow (Yellow-mandibled) Arremon taciturnus axillaris

 

Pectoral Sparrow (Pectoral) Arremon taciturnus taciturnus/nigrirostris

 

White-eared Ground-Sparrow (Gray-crowned) Melozone leucotis occipitalis

 

White-eared Ground-Sparrow (White-eared) Melozone leucotis leucotis/nigrior

 

Rose-breasted Chat (Rose-breasted) Granatellus pelzelni pelzelni

 

Rose-breasted Chat (Rose-bellied) Granatellus pelzelni paraensis

 

Russet-backed Oropendola (Russet-backed) Psarocolius angustifrons [angustifrons Group]

 

Russet-backed Oropendola (Green-billed) Psarocolius angustifrons oleagineus

 

Olive Oropendola (Amazonian) Psarocolius bifasciatus yuracares/neivae

 

Olive Oropendola (Para) Psarocolius bifasciatus bifasciatus

 

Blue Chaffinch (Tenerife) Fringilla teydea teydea

 

Blue Chaffinch (Gran Canaria) Fringilla teydea polatzeki

 

Antillean Euphonia (Hispaniolan) Euphonia musica musica

 

Antillean Euphonia (Puerto Rican) Euphonia musica sclateri

 

Antillean Euphonia (Lesser) Euphonia musica flavifrons

 

Brown Bullfinch (Brown) Pyrrhula nipalensis [nipalensis Group]

 

Brown Bullfinch (Malay) Pyrrhula nipalensis waterstradti

 

Reichard’s Seedeater (Stripe-breasted) Crithagra reichardi striatipectus

 

Reichard’s Seedeater (Reichard’s) Crithagra reichardi reichardi

 

Mountain Serin (Mountain) Chrysocorythus estherae [estherae Group]

 

Mountain Serin (Mindanao) Chrysocorythus estherae mindanensis

 

European Goldfinch (European) Carduelis carduelis [carduelis Group]

 

European Goldfinch (Eastern) Carduelis carduelis [caniceps Group]

 

Red-headed Weaver (Northern) Anaplectes rubriceps leuconotos

 

Red-headed Weaver (Red) Anaplectes rubriceps jubaensis

 

Red-headed Weaver (Southern) Anaplectes rubriceps rubriceps

 

Katanga Masked-Weaver (Upemba) Ploceus katangae upembae

 

Katanga Masked-Weaver (Katanga) Ploceus katangae katangae

 

Red-collared Widowbird (Red-cowled) Euplectes ardens laticauda/suahelicus

 

Red-collared Widowbird (Red-collared) Euplectes ardens ardens

 

Crimson Finch (White-bellied) Neochmia phaeton evangelinae

 

Crimson Finch (Black-bellied) Neochmia phaeton phaeton