Clements Checklist

Updates & Corrections – October 2022

2022 UPDATES and CORRECTIONS, to accompany the eBird/Clements Checklist v2022 spreadsheet
Posted 25 October 2022

The Updates and Corrections are grouped into four sections. Within each section, items are listed in the sequence in which they are encountered in the eBird/Clements Checklist v2022 spreadsheet, although we also continue to reference by page number the relevant entry in the last published edition of the Clements Checklist (6th edition, 2007).

The four sections are:

1  Species Рgains and losses (posted 25 October 2022)

2¬† Orders and Families ‚Äď gains, losses, and changes to order or family composition or nomenclature (posted 25 October 2022)

3  Standard Updates and Correction Рall other changes, listed in sequence as they occur in the spreadsheet (to be posted xxxxxx 2022)

4¬† Groups ‚Äď a list of new groups ¬†(posted 25 October 2022)

SPECIES

SPECIES GAINS (splits and newly recognized species)

 

page 56, Blue-throated Piping-Guan Pipile cumanensis

Blue-throated Piping-Guan is split into two species, based on differences in plumage and in the color and shape of the wattle, and because there is only limited documentation of hybridization between them (Vaurie 1967). Therefore the monotypic group Blue-throated Piping-Guan (Blue-throated) Pipile cumanensis cumanensis becomes Blue-throated Piping-Guan Pipile cumanensis; and the monotypic group Blue-throated Piping-Guan (White-throated) Pipile cumanensis grayi becomes White-throated Piping-Guan Pipile grayi.

Reference:

Vaurie, C. 1967. Systematic notes on the bird family Cracidae. No. 7. The genus Pipile. American Museum Novitates 2296.

 

page 74, Crested Guineafowl Guttera pucherani

Crested Guineafowl is split into three species, based on differences in the color and pattern of the bare facial and neck skin, reported differences in vocalizations (summarized in del Hoyo and Collar 2014), and because introgression appears to be limited (e.g., Zimmerman et al. 1996), although also poorly studied: a monotypic Eastern Crested Guineafowl Guttera pucherani; a polytypic Western Crested Guineafowl Guttera verreauxi, with subspecies sclateri and verreauxi; and a polytypic Southern Crested Guineafowl Guttera edouardi, with subspecies barbata and edouardi.

Within Western Crested Guineafowl, reposition nominate verreauxi to precede, rather than follow, subspecies sclateri.

References:

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 1. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Zimmerman, D.A., D.A. Turner, and D.J. Pearson. 1996. Birds of northern Kenya and northern Tanzania. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

 

pages 72-73, Ring-necked Pheasant Phasianus colchicus

Green Pheasant Phasianus versicolor (with subspecies versicolor, tanensis, and robustipes) is split from Ring-necked Pheasant, following Vaurie (1965) and Cramp et al. (1980); see also Kayvanfar et al. (2017) and Liu et al. (2020).

References:

Cramp, S. (chief editor). 1980. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. The birds of the Western Palearctic. Volume II. Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford, United Kingdom.

Kayvanfar, N., M. Aliabadian, X. Niu, X., Z. Zhang, and Y. Liu. 2017. Phylogeography of the Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus. Ibis 159: 430-442. https://doi.org/10.1111/ibi.12455

Liu, S., Y. Liu, E. Jelen, M. Alibadian, C.-T. Yao, X. Li, N. Kayvanfar, Y, Wang, F.S.M. Vahidi, J.-L. Han, G. Sundev, Z. Zhang, and M. Schweizer. 2020. Regional drivers of diversification in the late Quaternary in a widely distributed generalist species, the Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus. Journal of Biogeography 47: 2714‚Äď 2727. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13964

Vaurie, C. 1965. The birds of the Palearctic fauna. Non-Passeriformes. H.F. & G. Witherby Limited, London.

 

page 72, Crestless Fireback Lophura erythrophthalma

Crestless Fireback is split into two species, based on substantial differences in plumage (del Hoyo and Collar 2014, Eaton et al. 2021). Therefore the monotypic group Crestless Fireback (Malayan) Lophura erythrophthalma erythrophthalma becomes Malayan Crestless Fireback Lophura erythrophthalma; and the monotypic group Crestless Fireback (Bornean) Lophura erythrophthalma pyronota becomes Bornean Crestless Fireback Lophura pyronota.

References:

Eaton, J.A., B. van Balen, N.W. Brickle, and F.E. Rheindt. 2021. Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago: Greater Sundas and Wallacea. Second edition. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 1. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page 72, Crested Fireback Lophura ignita

Crested Fireback is split into two species, based on substantial differences in plumage (del Hoyo and Collar 2014, Eaton et al. 2016). Note that although apparent hybrids have been reported (Delacour 1949, van Marle and Voous 1988), apparently pure birds occur very near this region (Eaton et al. 2016); it also is possible that these reports of birds with intermediate characters were based on trade skins of captive hybrids, rather than a wild population (F. Rheindt). As a result the monotypic group Crested Fireback (Malayan) Lophura ignita rufa becomes Malayan Crested Fireback Lophura rufa; and the monotypic group Crested Fireback (Bornean) Lophura ignita ignita becomes Bornean Crested Fireback Lophura ignita.

References:

Delacour, J. 1949. The genus Lophura (Gallopheasants). Ibis 91: 188-220. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-919X.1949.tb02262.x

Eaton, J.A., B. van Balen, N.W. Brickle, and F.E. Rheindt. 2016. Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago: Greater Sundas and Wallacea. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 1. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

van Marle, J.G., and K.H. Voous. 1988. The birds of Sumatra. B.O.U. Check-list number 10. British Ornithologists’ Union, Tring, United Kingdom.

 

page 69, Chestnut-necklaced Partridge Tropicoperdix charltonii

The monotypic group Chestnut-necklaced Partridge (Sabah) Tropicoperdix charltonii graydoni now is recognized as a species, Sabah Partridge Tropicoperdix graydoni, based on pronounced differences in plumage and in the color of the facial skin (del Hoyo and Collar 2014, Eaton et al. 2021).

References:

Eaton, J.A., B. van Balen, N.W. Brickle, and F.E. Rheindt. 2021. Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago: Greater Sundas and Wallacea. Second edition. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 1. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page 66, Moorland Francolin Scleroptila psilolaema

Moorland Francolin is split into two species, based on differences in plumage and vocalizations (del Hoyo and Collar 2014, Hunter et al. 2019, Turner et al. 2020). Therefore the monotypic group Moorland Francolin (Moorland) Scleroptila psilolaema psilolaema becomes Moorland Francolin Scleroptila psilolaema; and the monotypic group Moorland Francolin (Elgon) Scleroptila psilolaema elgonensis becomes Elgon Francolin Scleroptila elgonensis.

References:

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 1. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Hunter, N., M. Mills, and C. Cohen. 2019. Elgon Francolin Scleroptila elgonensis should be treated as a species distinct from Moorland Francolin S. psilolaema. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 26: 92-100.

Turner, D.A., F. Dowsett-Lemaire, and R.J. Turner. 2020. Further support for the specific distinctness of Elgon Francolin Scleroptila elgonensis. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 27: 80-83.

 

page 66, Shelley’s Francolin Scleroptila shelleyi

The two monotypic groups, Shelley’s Francolin (Shelley’s) Scleroptila shelleyi shelleyi and Shelley’s Francolin (Whyte’s) Scleroptila shelleyi whytei, which are allopatric, are recognized as separate species, based on plumage differences (del Hoyo and Collar 2014): Shelley’s Francolin Scleroptila shelleyi and Whyte’s Francolin Scleroptila whytei.

Reference:

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 1. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page 113, Eurasian Collared-Dove Streptopelia decaocto

The monotypic group Eurasian Collared-Dove (Burmese) Streptopelia decaocto xanthocycla is elevated to species rank as Burmese Collared-Dove Streptopelia xanthocycla, based on clear differences in size and vocalizations, and its prominent eyering. As a result, Eurasian Collared-Dove becomes monotypic.

Revise the range of Burmese Collared-Dove from “Myanmar (Shan States) to s China (Yunnan) and e China” to “central Myanmar”.

Reference:

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 1. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page 125, Gray-green Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus purpuratus

The monotypic group Gray-green Fruit-Dove (chrysogaster) Ptilinopus purpuratus chrysogaster apparently is more closely related to Cook Islands Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus rarotongensis than it is to Gray-green Fruit-Dove (Cibois et al. 2014, 2015). Therefore we recognize chrysogaster as a species, Raiatea Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus chrysogaster, although further research may show that it is better classified as a subspecies of Cook Islands Fruit-Dove.

References:

Cibois, A., J.-C. Thibault, C. Bonillo, C.E. Filardi, D. Watling, and E. Pasquet. 2014. Phylogeny and biogeography of the fruit doves (Aves: Columbidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 70: 442-453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2013.08.019

Cibois, A., J.-C. Thibault, J.-Y. Meyer, and E. Pasquet. 2015. On the origin of sympatric fruit doves in a small and remote Pacific archipelago. Pacific Science 69: 299-312. https://doi.org/10.2984/69.3.1

 

page 126, Yellow-bibbed Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus solomonensis

The monotypic group Yellow-bibbed Fruit-Dove (Geelvink) Ptilinopus solomonensis speciosus is recognized as a species, Geelvink Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus speciosus, on the basis of differences in both plumage and vocalizations (del Hoyo and Collar 2014, Gregory 2017).

References:

Gregory, P. 2017. Birds of New Guinea: including Bismarck Archipelago and Bougainville. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 1. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page 127, Green Imperial-Pigeon Ducula aenea

On the basis of pronounced plumage differences (see del Hoyo and Collar 2014, Eaton et al. 2016), the monotypic group Green Imperial-Pigeon (Enggano) Ducula aenea oenothorax is elevated to species rank as Enggano Imperial-Pigeon Ducula oenothorax.

References:

Eaton, J.A., B. van Balen, N.W. Brickle, and F.E. Rheindt. 2016. Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago: Greater Sundas and Wallacea. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 1. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page 128, Spice Imperial-Pigeon Ducula myristicivora

We follow Beehler and Pratt (2016) in recognizing the two monotypic groups as separate species: Spice Imperial-Pigeon (Pink-naped) Ducula myristicivora myristicivora becomes Spice Imperial-Pigeon Ducula myristicivora; and Spice Imperial-Pigeon (Gray-naped) Ducula myristicivora geelvinkiana becomes Geelvink Imperial-Pigeon Ducula geelvinkiana.

Reference:

Beehler, B.M., and T.K. Pratt. 2016. Birds of New Guinea: distribution, taxonomy, and systematics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

 

page 129, Mountain Imperial-Pigeon Ducula badia

The monotypic group Mountain Imperial-Pigeon (cuprea) Ducula badia cuprea is split as Malabar Imperial-Pigeon Ducula cuprea, based on vocal differences and different iris colors (Niranjana and Praveen 2021), coupled with subtle plumage differences.

Reference:

Niranjana C., and J. Praveen. 2021. Vocalisation of Mountain Imperial Pigeon Ducula badia and its taxonomic implications. Indian BIRDS 17: 70‚Äď72.

 

page 180, Greater Antillean Nightjar Antrostomus cubanensis

Greater Antillean Nightjar is split into two species, based on differences in song (Garrido and Reynard 1998): the polytypic group Greater Antillean Nightjar (Cuban) Antrostomus cubanensis cubanensis/insulaepinorum becomes Cuban Nightjar Antrostomus cubanensis, with subspecies cubanensis and insulaepinorum; and the monotypic group Greater Antillean Nightjar (Hispaniolan) Antrostomus cubanensis ekmani becomes Hispaniolan Nightjar Antrostomus ekmani.

Reference:

Garrido, O.H., and G.B. Reynard. 1998. Is the Greater Antillean Nightjar, Caprimulgus cubanensis (Aves: Caprimulgidae), a composite species? Ornitología Neotropical 9: 1-12. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/on/v009n01/p0001-p0012

 

page 195, Antillean Mango Anthracothorax dominicus

In accord with AOS-NACC, we split Antillean Mango, based on differences in plumage and morphometrics (Chesser et al. 2022). Therefore the monotypic group Antillean Mango (Hispaniolan) Anthracothorax dominicus dominicus becomes Hispaniolan Mango Anthracothorax dominicus; and the monotypic group Antillean Mango (Puerto Rican) Anthracothorax dominicus aurulentus becomes Puerto Rican Mango Anthracothorax aurulentus.

Reference:

Chesser, R.T., S.M. Billerman, K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, B.E. Hern√°ndez-Ba√Īos, R.A. Jim√©nez, A.W. Kratter, N.A. Mason, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2022. Sixty-third Supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Ornithology 139: ukac020. https://doi.org/10.1093/ornithology/ukac020

 

page 206, Amethyst-throated Sunangel Heliangelus amethysticollis

Amethyst-throated Sunangel is split into three species, based on substantial vocal differences (Donegan et al. 2015) as well as differences in plumage. As a result, the polytypic group Amethyst-throated Sunangel (Longuemare’s) Heliangelus amethysticollis clarisse/violiceps now is recognized as Longuemare’s Sunangel Heliangelus clarisse, with subspecies violiceps and clarisse; the monotypic group Amethyst-throated Sunangel (Merida) Heliangelus amethysticollis spencei becomes Merida Sunangel Heliangelus spencei; and the polytypic group Amethyst-throated Sunangel (Amethyst-throated) Heliangelus amethysticollis [amethysticollis Group], with subspecies laticlavius, decolor, apurimacensis, and amethysticollis, retains the names Amethyst-throated Sunangel Heliangelus amethysticollis.

Reference:

Donegan, T., A. Quevedo, J.C. Verhelst, O. Cort√©s-Herrera, T. Ellery, and P. Salaman. 2015. Revision of the status of bird species occurring in Colombia, with discussion of BirdLife International’s new taxonomy. Conservaci√≥n Colombiana 23: 3-48. http://www.proaves.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Listado-y-Splits-Conservacion-Colombiana-23-3-48.pdf

 

page 205, Collared Inca Coeligena torquata

Collared Inca is split into three species. These splits are based in part on substantial plumage differences; also, although there is not yet data for all members of this group of this group, genetic analyses indicate that some taxa (the torquata Group and the inca/omissa Group) are more differentiated than are many other taxa of Coeligena that are recognized as species (McGuire et al. 2014). The three newly recognized species are Collared Inca Coeligena torquata, including subspecies torquata, fulgidigula, margaretae, insectivora, and eisenmanni; a monotypic Green Inca Coeligena conradii; and Gould’s Inca Coeligena inca, with subspecies omissa and inca.

Reference:

McGuire, J.A., C.C. Witt, J.V. Remsen, Jr., A. Corl, D.L. Rabosky, D.L. Altshuler, and R. Dudley. 2014. Molecular phylogenetics and the diversification of hummingbirds. Current Biology 24: 910-916.       https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.03.016

 

page 205, Golden-bellied Starfrontlet Coeligena bonapartei

Golden-bellied Starfrontlet is split into three species, based on plumage differences, and because genetic evidence indicates that a polytypic Golden-bellied Starfrontlet is paraphyletic with respect to Blue-throated Starfrontlet Coeligena helianthea (Palacios et al. 2019). Therefore the monotypic group Golden-bellied Starfrontlet (Perija) Coeligena bonapartei consita is recognized as Perija Starfrontlet Coeligena consita; the monotypic group Golden-bellied Starfrontlet (Golden-bellied) Coeligena bonapartei bonapartei is recognized as Golden-bellied Starfrontlet Coeligena bonapartei; and the monotypic group Golden-bellied Starfrontlet (Golden-tailed) Coeligena bonapartei eos is recognized as Merida Starfrontlet Coeligena eos.

Reference:

Palacios, C., S. García-R, J.L. Parra, A.M. Cuervo, F.G. Stiles, J.E. McCormack, and C.D. Cadena. 2019. Shallow genetic divergence and distinct phenotypic differences between two Andean hummingbirds: speciation with gene flow? Auk 136: ukz046. https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/ukz046

 

page 207, Booted Racket-tail Ocreatus underwoodii

Booted Racket-tail Ocreatus underwoodii is split into three species, based on morphological and behavioral differences (Schuchman 1987, Schuchmann et al. 2016). As a result, the polytypic group Booted Racket-tail (White-booted) Ocreatus underwoodii [underwoodii Group], with subspecies polystictus, discifer, underwoodii, incommodus, and melanantherus, are recognized as White-booted Racket-tail Ocreatus underwoodii; the monotypic group Booted Racket-tail (Peruvian) Ocreatus underwoodii peruanus is recognized as Peruvian Racket-tail Ocreatus peruanus; and the monotypic groups Booted Racket-tail (Anna’s) Ocreatus underwoodii annae and Booted Racket-tail (Adda’s) Ocreatus underwoodii addae are united as Rufous-booted Racket-tail Ocreatus addae, with monotypic groups Rufous-booted Racket-tail (Anna’s) Ocreatus addae annae and Rufous-booted Racket-tail (Adda’s) Ocreatus addae addae.

Revise the range of subspecies melanantherus (White-booted Racket-tail) from “Andes of Ecuador” to “west slope of the Andes of Ecuador (south to El Oro and western Loja)”.

Revise the range of Peruvian Racket-tail from “E Ecuador and ne Peru” to “southeastern Andes of Colombia (western Putumayo, south of the upper Caquet√° River), eastern Ecuador, and eastern Peru south to Hu√°nuco (Huallaga Valley)”.

Revise the range of subspecies annae (Rufous-booted Racket-tail) from “Andes of central and s Peru” to “east slope of the Andes of central and southern Peru (Pasco south to Puno)”; and revise the range of nominate addae from “Yungas of Bolivia (La Paz to Santa Cruz and Chuquisaca)” to “east slope of the Andes of Bolivia (La Paz south to northern Chuquisaca)”.

References:

Schuchmann, K.-L. 1987. The display of the Booted Racked-tailed Hummingbird Ocreatus underwoodii, with notes on the systematic position of the genus. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists Club 107: 20-22. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/40083899

Schuchmann, K.-L., A.-A. Weller, and D. J√ľrgens. 2016. Biogeography and taxonomy of racket-tail hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae: Ocreatus): evidence for species delimitation from morphology and display behavior. Zootaxa 4200: 83-108. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4200.1.3

 

page 198, Broad-billed Hummingbird Cynanthus latirostris

In accord with AOS-NACC, the monotypic group Broad-billed Hummingbird (Tres Marias Is.) Cynanthus latirostris lawrencei is elevated to species rank as Tres Marias Hummingbird Cynanthus lawrencei (Chesser et al. 2022). Tres Marias Hummingbird is genetically distinct, although levels of genetic differentiation are low (Hern√°ndez-Ba√Īos et al. 2020), and exhibits plumage differences that comparable to those between other species in the genus (G√≥mez de Silva 2020, Hern√°ndez-Ba√Īos et al. 2020).

References:

Chesser, R.T., S.M. Billerman, K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, B.E. Hern√°ndez-Ba√Īos, R.A. Jim√©nez, A.W. Kratter, N.A. Mason, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2022. Sixty-third Supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Ornithology 139: ukac020. https://doi.org/10.1093/ornithology/ukac020

G√≥mez de Silva, H., M.G. Perez Villafa√Īa, J. Cruz-Nieto, and M.A. Nieto. 2020. Are some of the birds endemic to the Tres Mar√≠as Islands (Mexico) species? Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 140: 7-37. https://doi.org/10.25226/bboc.v140i1.2020.a3

Hern√°ndez-Ba√Īos, B.E., L.E. Zamudio-Beltr√°n, and B. Mil√°. 2020. Phylogenetic relationships and systematics of a subclade of Mesoamerican emerald hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae: Trochilini). Zootaxa 4748: 581‚Äď591. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4748.3.11

 

pages 196-197, Streamertail Trochilus polytmus

In accord with AOS-SACC (Chesser et al. 2022), each of the two monotypic groups is recognized as a species: the group Streamertail (Red-billed) Trochilus polytmus polytmus becomes Red-billed Streamertail Trochilus polytmus; and the group Streamertail (Black-billed) Trochilus polytmus scitulus becomes Black-billed Streamertail Trochilus scitulus. There is only an extremely narrow, and apparently stable, hybrid zone between these two taxa (Gill et al. 1973, Graves 2015); there are exceptionally steep clines in bill color and genetics (Judy 2018); and vocal and display differences between them have been reported (Schuchmann 1977, 1979).

Revise the range of Red-billed Streamertail from “Jamaica (except range of scitulus)” to “Jamaica (except in the far east)”.

Revise the range of Black-billed Streamertail from “Extreme ne Jamaica (Portland Parish)” to “extreme eastern Jamaica (east of the Rio Grande Valley and the Morant River Valley, and in the easternmost Blue Mountains)”.

References:

Chesser, R.T., S.M. Billerman, K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, B.E. Hern√°ndez-Ba√Īos, R.A. Jim√©nez, A.W. Kratter, N.A. Mason, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2022. Sixty-third Supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Ornithology 139: ukac020. https://doi.org/10.1093/ornithology/ukac020

Gill, F.B., F.J. Stokes, and C. Stokes. 1973. Contact zones and hybridization in the Jamaican hummingbird, Trochilus polytmus (L.). Condor 75: 170-176. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/condor/v075n02/p0170-p0176.pdf

Graves, G. R. 2015. A primer on the hybrid zone of Jamaican streamertail hummingbirds (Trochilidae: Trochilus). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 128: 111-124. https://doi.org/10.2988/0006-324X-128.1.111

Judy, C.D. 2018. Speciation and hybridization in Jamaican-endemic streamertail hummingbirds (Trochilus polytmus and T. scitulus). LSU Doctoral Dissertations. 4760. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/gradschool_dissertations/4760/

Schuchmann, K.-L. 1977. Notes on the display of the Streamertailed Hummingbird Trochilus polytmus (L.). Gosse Bird Club 28: 11‚Äď13.

Schuchmann, K.-L. 1979. Allopatrische Artbildung bei der Kolibrigattung Trochilus. Ardea 66: 156‚Äď172.

 

page 202, page 202, Green-bellied Hummingbird Saucerottia viridigaster

Each of the two polytypic groups now is recognized as a separate species, based on plumage differences, in the coloration of the tail, rump, and undertail coverts (Weller 2002). As a result the group Green-bellied Hummingbird (Green-bellied) Saucerottia viridigaster viridigaster/iodura becomes Green-bellied Hummingbird Saucerottia viridigaster, with subspecies viridigaster and iodura; and the group Green-bellied Hummingbird (Copper-tailed) Saucerottia viridigaster [cupreicauda Group] becomes Copper-tailed Hummingbird Saucerottia cupreicauda, with subspecies duidae, laireti, pacaraimae, and cupreicauda.

Reference:

Weller, A.-A. 2000. A new hummingbird subspecies from southern Bolívar, Venezuela, with notes on biogeography and taxonomy of the Saucerottia viridigastercupreicauda species group. Ornitología Neotropical 11: 143-154. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/on/v011n02/p0143-p0154.pdf

 

page 76, Painted Buttonquail Turnix varius

The monotypic group Painted Buttonquail (New Caledonian) Turnix varius novaecaledoniae is recognized as a separate species, New Caledonian Buttonquail Turnix novaecaledoniae, based on significant morphometric and plumage differences (MacDonald 1971, Debus 1996, del Hoyo and Collar 2014). Reposition New Caledonian Buttonquail immediately following Painted Buttonquail. Revise the range from “New Caledonia” to “Formerly New Caledonia; probably extinct, not reported with certainty since 1889”.

References:

Debus, S.J.S. 1996. Family Turnicidae (buttonquails). Pages 44-59 in J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal (editors), Handbook of the birds of the world. Volume 3. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 1. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

MacDonald, J.D. 1971. Validity of the Buff-breasted Quail. Sunbird 2: 1-5.

 

page (addition 2022), New Caledonian Storm-Petrel Fregetta lineata

We recognize New Caledonian Storm-Petrel Fregetta lineata Peale 1848 as a valid species, following Bretagnolle et al. (2022), with range “Distribution poorly known. Breeds New Caledonia; reported at sea from the Coral Sea (breeding season foraging area?) east to Samoa and the Marquesas Islands (nonbreeding range?)”.

Reference:

Bretagnolle, V., R.L. Flood, S. Gaba, and H. Shirihai. 2022. Fregetta lineata (Peale, 1848) is a valid extant species endemic to New Caledonia. Bulletin of the British Ornithologist Club 142: 111-130. https://doi.org/10.25226/bboc.v142i1.2022.a6

 

page 11, Salvin’s Prion Pachyptila salvini

The monotypic group Salvin’s Prion (MacGillivray’s) Pachyptila salvini macgillivrayi is recognized as a separate species, MacGillivray’s Prion Pachyptila macgillivrayi, following Masello et al. (2022; see also Ryan et al. 2014). Revise the range of MacGillivray’s Prion from “Amsterdam and St. Paul islands” to “breeds in the Southern Atlantic Ocean (Gough Island) and the Southern Indian Ocean (St. Paul Island, formerly also Amsterdam Island); at-sea distribution not well known”.

Consequently Salvin’s Prion becomes monotypic; delete the monotypic group Salvin’s Prion (Salvin’s) Pachyptila salvini salvini.

References:

Masello, J.F., P.G. Ryan, L.D. Shepherd, P. Quillfeldt, Y. Cherel, A.J.D. Tennyson, R. Alderman, L. Calder√≥n, T.L. Cole, R.J. Cuthbert, B.J. Dilley, M. Massaro, C.M. Miskelly, J. Navarro, R.A. Phillips, H. Weimerskirch, and Y. Moodley. 2022. Independent evolution of intermediate bill widths in a seabird clade. Molecular Genetics and Genomics 297: 183‚Äď198. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00438-021-01845-3

Ryan, P.G., K. Bourgeois, S. Dromz√©e, and B.J. Dilley. 2014. The occurrence of two bill morphs of prions Pachyptila vittata on Gough Island. Polar Biology 37: 727‚Äď735. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-014-1473-2

 

page 23, Woolly-necked Stork Ciconia episcopus

Each of the two groups is recognized as a separate species, based on differences in plumage coloration, the presence or absence of bare facial skin, and differences in tarsus coloration (del Hoyo and Collar 2014, Eaton et al. 2021). Therefore the monotypic group Woolly-necked Stork (African) Ciconia episcopus microscelis becomes African Woolly-necked Stork Ciconia microscelis; and the polytypic group Woolly-necked Stork (Asian) Ciconia episcopus episcopus/neglecta becomes Asian Woolly-necked Stork Ciconia episcopus, with subspecies episcopus and neglecta.

References:

Eaton, J.A., B. van Balen, N.W. Brickle, and F.E. Rheindt. 2021. Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago: Greater Sundas and Wallacea. Second edition. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 1. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page 35, Hook-billed Kite Chondrohierax uncinatus

The monotypic group Hook-billed Kite (Cuban) Chondrohierax uncinatus wilsonii is split as Cuban Kite Chondrohierax wilsonii, based on the degree of genetic (mtDNA; Johnson et al. 2007) and morphological (Friedmann 1950) differences; although these differences are relatively low in absolute terms, they assume greater weight in view of the absence of any geographic structure to variation within Hook-billed Kite across the rest of its extensive geographic range.

References:

Friedmann, H. 1950. The birds of North and Middle America. Part XI. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 50, part 11. https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/7732013

Johnson, J.A., R. Thorstrom, and D.P. Mindell 2007. Systematics and conservation of the Hook-billed Kite including the island taxa from Cuba and Grenada. Animal Conservation

10: 349‚Äď359. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2007.00118.x

 

page 43, Bicolored Hawk Accipiter bicolor

The monotypic group Bicolored Hawk (Chilean) Accipiter bicolor chilensis is recognized as a separate species, Chilean Hawk Accipiter chilensis, on the basis of differences in vocalizations and habitat (Jaramillo 2003, Pearman and Areta 2020).

References:

Jaramillo, A. 2003. Birds of Chile. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Pearman, M., and J.I. Areta. 2020. Birds of Argentina and the south-west Atlantic. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

 

page 164, Moluccan Scops-Owl Otus magicus

page 164, Sulawesi Scops-Owl Otus manadensis

The monotypic group Moluccan Scops-Owl (Wetar) Otus magicus tempestatis is split from Moluccan Scops-Owl on the basis of different vocalizations (Eaton et al. 2016).

The monotypic group Sulawesi Scops-Owl (Banggai) Otus manadensis mendeni is recognized as a monotypic species, Banggai Scops-Owl Otus mendeni, on the basis of vocal differences (Rheindt et al. 2010, Eaton et al. 2016).

The monotypic group Sulawesi Scops-Owl (Kalidupa) Otus manadensis kalidupae is better classified as a subspecies of Moluccan Scops-Owl, based on its vocalizations (Eaton et al. 2016, O’Connell et al. 2020). It continues to be recognized as a monotypic group, Moluccan Scops-Owl (Kalidupa) Otus magicus kalidupae.

As a result Sulawesi Scops-Owl becomes monotypic; the former monotypic group Sulawesi Scops-Owl (Sulawesi) Otus manadensis manadensis is dissolved.

References:

Eaton, J.A., B. van Balen, N.W. Brickle, and F.E. Rheindt. 2016. Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago: Greater Sundas and Wallacea. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

O’Connell, D.P., D.J. Kelly, S.B.A. Kelly, K. Analuddin, A. Karya, N.M. Marples, F.E. Rheindt, and T.E. Martin. 2020. An assessment of the avifauna of the Wakatobi Islands, South-east Sulawesi, Indonesia: species recorded and taxonomic considerations. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 68: 574-587.

Rheindt, F.E., F. Verbelen, D.D. Putra, A. Rahman, and M. Indrawan. 2010. New biogeographic records in the avifauna of Peleng Island (Sulawesi, Indonesia), with taxonomic notes on some endemic taxa. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 130: 181-207. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/47499801

 

pages 166-167, Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus

The monotypic group Great Horned Owl (Magellanic) Bubo virginianus magellanicus is recognized as a separate species, Lesser Horned Owl Bubo magellanicus, on the basis of vocal differences that are maintained across the extensive range of this taxon (López-Lánus 2015). These two species appear to meet in northwestern Peru (López-Lánus 2015), but although there may be some interbreeding (Traylor 1958), there is no evidence of a widespread hybrid zone. In northern Argentina, they are parapatric, and apparently segregate by elevation and habitat, again with no evidence of interbreeding (Pearman and Areta 2020).

References:

López-Lánus, B. 2015. Análisis comparativo de las vocalizaciones de distintos taxa del género Bubo en América. Hornero 30: 69-88. https://www.scielo.org.ar/pdf/hornero/v30n2/v30n2a04.pdf

Pearman, M., and J.I. Areta. 2020. Birds of Argentina and the south-west Atlantic. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Traylor, M.A. 1958. Variation in South American great horned owls. Auk 75: 143-149. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v075n02/p0143-p0149.pdf

 

page 175, Solomons Boobook Ninox jacquinoti

Genetic data demonstrate that Ninox jacquinoti is embedded within Athene (Gwee et al. 2017, Salter et al. 2020); change the scientific name to Athene jacquinoti.

On the basis of vocal and plumage differences, two monotypic species, Guadalcanal Owl Athene granti and Makira Owl Athene roseoaxillaris, are split from Athene jacquinoti (Dutson 2011); the voice of Malaita Owl Athene malaitae is not described, but plumage differences support recognition of it too as a species (Dutson 2011). Following the removal of these three taxa from Ninox jacquinoti, change the English name from Solomons Boobook to West Solomons Owl.

References:

Dutson, G. 2011. Birds of Melanesia: the Bismarcks, Solomons, Vanuatu and New Caledonia. Christopher Helm, London.

Gwee, C.Y., L. Christidis, J.A. Eaton, J.A. Norman, C.R. Trainor, P. Verbelen, and F.E. Rheindt. 2017. Bioacoustic and multi-locus DNA data of Ninox owls support high incidence of extinction and recolonisation on small, low-lying islands across Wallacea. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 109: 246‚Äď258. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2016.12.024

Salter, J. F., C.H. Oliveros, P.A. Hosner, J.D. Manthey, M.B. Robbins, R.G. Moyle, R.T. Brumfield, and B.C. Faircloth. 2020. Extensive paraphyly in the typical owl family (Strigidae). Auk 137: ukz070. https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/ukz070

 

page 174, Morepork Ninox novaeseelandiae

The monotypic group Morepork (Tasmanian) Ninox novaeseelandiae leucopsis is split from Morepork, as Tasmanian Boobook Ninox leucopsis, based on moderate levels of vocal and genetic divergence (Gwee et al. 2017), and differences in plumage and morphometrics (König and Weick 2008, del Hoyo and Collar 2014).

References:

Gwee, C.Y., L. Christidis, J.A. Eaton, J.A. Norman, C.R. Trainor, P. Verbelen, and F.E. Rheindt. 2017. Bioacoustic and multi-locus DNA data of Ninox owls support high

incidence of extinction and recolonisation on small, low-lying islands across Wallacea. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 109: 246‚Äď258. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2016.12.024

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 1. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

König, C., and F. Weick. 2008. Owls of the world. Second edition. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.

 

page 216, Blue-banded Kingfisher Alcedo euryzona

Each of the two monotypic groups is recognized as a separate species: Blue-banded Kingfisher (Malaysian) Alcedo euryzona peninsulae becomes Malaysian Blue-banded Kingfisher Alcedo peninsulae, and Blue-banded Kingfisher (Javan) Alcedo euryzona euryzona becomes Javan Blue-banded Kingfisher Alcedo euryzona. The lack of clinality in the rather striking plumage differences (del Hoyo and Collar 2014; see also Eaton et al.) within the ranges of the two taxa, despite the fact that Sumatra and Java have been connected for most of the Pleistocene, is here taken as evidence of parapatry and thus species status.

References:

Eaton, J.A., B. van Balen, N.W. Brickle, and F.E. Rheindt. 2016. Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago: Greater Sundas and Wallacea. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 1. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page 217, Sulawesi Dwarf-Kingfisher Ceyx fallax

Each of the two monotypic groups is recognized as a separate species: Sulawesi Dwarf-Kingfisher (Sangihe) Ceyx fallax sangirensis becomes Sangihe Dwarf-Kingfisher Ceyx sangirensis, and Sulawesi Dwarf-Kingfisher (Sulawesi) Ceyx fallax fallax retains the names Sulawesi Dwarf-Kingfisher Ceyx fallax. The split is based multiple morphological differences between the two taxa (del Hoyo and Collar 2014).

Revise the range of Sangihe Dwarf-Kingfisher from “Sangihe I. (ne of Sulawesi)” to “Sangihe Island (northeast of Sulawesi); probably extinct”.

Reference:

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 1. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page 218, Lilac-cheeked Kingfisher Cittura cyanotis

Each of the two monotypic groups is recognized as a separate species: Lilac-cheeked Kingfisher (Sangihe) Cittura cyanotis sanghirensis becomes Sangihe Lilac Kingfisher Cittura sanghirensis; and Lilac-cheeked Kingfisher (Sulawesi) Cittura cyanotis cyanotis becomes Sulawesi Lilac Kingfisher Cittura cyanotis. These two taxa show fairly deep levels of genetic divergence (Andersen et al. 2018), and have considerably different plumages (del Hoyo and Collar 2014, Eaton et al. 2016).

References:

Andersen, M.J., J.M. McCullough, W.M. Mauck III, B.T. Smith, and R.G. Moyle. 2018. A phylogeny of kingfishers reveals an Indomalayan origin and elevated rates of diversification on oceanic islands. Journal of Biogeography 45: 269‚Äď281. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13139

Eaton, J.A., B. van Balen, N.W. Brickle, and F.E. Rheindt. 2016. Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago: Greater Sundas and Wallacea. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 1. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page 225, Blue-breasted Bee-eater Merops variegatus

The monotypic group Blue-breasted Bee-eater (Ethiopian) Merops variegatus lafresnayii is recognized as a separate species, Ethiopian Bee-eater Merops lafresnayii, based on plumage and vocal differences from Blue-breasted Bee-eater (Turner 2010).

References:

Turner, D.A. 2010. Merops oreobates (Sharpe 1892): a monotypic species or not? Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 130: 228‚Äď229. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/47499848

 

page 226, Green Bee-eater Merops orientalis

The striking morphological distinctness of members of each of the three groups, with no evidence of intergradation and with the most distinct taxa (cyanophrys and muscatensis) interposed between the other two groups, argues for a three-way split (as noted by e.g. Fry 2001). Therefore the polytypic group Green Bee-eater (Yellow-throated) Merops orientalis [viridissimus Group] becomes African Green Bee-eater Merops viridissimus, with subspecies viridissimus, flavoviridis, and cleopatra; the polytypic group Green Bee-eater (Arabian) Merops orientalis cyanophrys/najdanus becomes Arabian Green Bee-eater Merops cyanophrys, with subspecies cyanophrys and muscatensis; and the polytypic group Green Bee-eater (Russet-crowned) Merops orientalis [orientalis Group] becomes Asian Green Bee-eater Merops orientalis, with subspecies beludschicus, orientalis, ceylonicus, and ferrugeiceps.

Note that the subspecies name najdanus Bates 1935 is replaced by the older available name muscatensis Sharpe 1886 (Fry 2001). Revise the range of muscatensis from “Central Arabian plateau” to “central Arabian plateau and eastern Arabia”. Also revise the range of nominate cyanophrys from “Arabian Peninsula” to “southern Israel, and western and southern coastal areas of Arabian Peninsula”.

Reference:

Fry, C.H. 2001. Family Meropidae (Bee-eaters). Pages 286-341 in J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal (editors), Handbook of the birds of the world. Volume 6. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page 233, Russet-throated Puffbird Hypnelus ruficollis

Each of the two polytypic groups is recognized as a separate species: the group Russet-throated Puffbird (Russet-throated) Hypnelus ruficollis [ruficollis Group] (consisting of subspecies ruficollis, decolor, and coloratus) becomes Russet-throated Puffbird Hypnelus ruficollis; and the group Russet-throated Puffbird (Two-banded) Hypnelus ruficollis bicinctus/stoicus becomes Two-banded Puffbird Hypnelus bicinctus. These groups are srikingly different in plumage and long had been considered to be separate species (e.g., Peters 1948, Phelps and Phelps 1958a), but had been lumped on the basis of a population with apparently intermediate plumage (striaticollis Phelps and Phelps 1958b). The incidence of introgression is not documented, and reports of hybridization may be based at least in part on specimens of juveniles (Restall et al. 2006); in any event, the distributions of the two species appear to turn over very quickly in the only area where they are known to be in contact (Falcón, northern Venezuela). Vocalizations also differ between the two groups (Donegan et al. 2015).

Revise the range of subspecies Hypnelus ruficollis decolor from ” Extreme ne Colombia (Guajira Pen.) and nw Venezuela (Falc√≥n)” to “extreme northeastern Colombia (Guajira Peninsula) and northwestern Venezuela (northern Falc√≥n, on or near the base of the Paraguan√° Peninsula)”.

Revise the range of nominate bicinctus from “Llanos of interior ne Colombia and n Venezuela” to “northeastern Colombia (llanos, east of the Andes) and Venezuela from Falc√≥n (except for the Paraguan√° Peninsula) to northwestern Amazonas and northern Bol√≠var; populations in northern Falc√≥n may merit recognition as a separate subspecies”.

References:

Donegan, T., A. Quevedo, J.C. Verhelst, O. Cort√©s-Herrera, T. Ellery, and P. Salaman. 2015. Revision of the status of bird species occurring in Colombia, with discussion of BirdLife International’s new taxonomy. Conservaci√≥n Colombiana 23: 3-48. http://www.proaves.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Listado-y-Splits-Conservacion-Colombiana-23-3-48.pdf

Peters, J.L. 1948. Check-list of birds of the world. Volume VI. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Phelps, W.H., and W.H. Phelps, Jr. 1958a. Lista de las aves de Venezuela con su distribución.Tomo II. Parte I. No Passeriformes. Boletín de la Sociedad Venezolana de Ciencias Naturales 19: 1-317.

Phelps, W.H., and W.H. Phelps, Jr. 1958b. Descriptions of two new Venezuelan birds and distributional notes. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 71: 119-124. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/34647848

Restall, R., C. Rodner, and M. Lentino. 2006. Birds of northern South America: an identification guide. Volume 1: species accounts. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.

 

page 240, Scarlet-banded Barbet Capito wallacei

Each of the two monotypic groups is recognized as a separate species, on the basis of plumage and morphometric differences (Seeholzer et al. 2012): the group Scarlet-banded Barbet (Scarlet-banded) Capito wallacei wallacei becomes Scarlet-banded Barbet Capito wallacei; and the group Scarlet-banded Barbet (Sira) Capito wallacei fitzpatricki becomes Sira Barbet Capito fitzpatricki.

Reference:

Seeholzer, G.F., B.M. Winger, M.G. Harvey, D. C√°ceres A., and J.D. Weckstein. 2012. A new species of barbet (Capitonidae: Capito) from the Cerros del Sira, Ucayali, Peru. Auk 129: 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2012.11250

 

page 308, Chestnut-belted Gnateater Conopophaga aurita

Chestnut-belted Gnateater is split into two species, based on deep genetic divergence (Batalha-Filo et al. 2014), and differences in plumage and vocalizations (Whitney 2003, Boesman 2016): Chestnut-belted Gnateater Conopophaga aurita, including subspecies aurita, inexpectata, occidentalis, and australis; and Black-breasted Gnateater Conopophaga snethlageae, with subspecies snethlageae and pallida.

References:

Batalha-Filho, H., R.O. Pessoa, P.-H. Fabre, J. Fjeldså, M. Irestedt, P.G.P. Ericson, L.F. Silveira, and C.Y. Miyaki. 2014. Phylogeny and historical biogeography of gnateaters (Passeriformes, Conopophagidae) in the South America forests. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 79: 422-432. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2014.06.025

Boesman, P. 2016. Notes on the vocalizations of Chestnut-belted Gnateater (Conopophaga aurita). HBW Alive Ornithological Note 65. In Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow-on.100065

Whitney, B.M. 2003. Family Conopophagidae (Gnateaters). Pages 732-747 in J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and D. Christie (editors), Handbook of the birds of the world. Volume 8. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page 279, Buffy Tuftedcheek Pseudocolaptes lawrencii

In accord with AOS-SACC (Proposal 940), each of the monotypic groups is recognized as a separate species: the group Buffy Tuftedcheek (Buffy) Pseudocolaptes lawrencii lawrencii retains the names Buffy Tuftedcheek Pseudocolaptes lawrencii, and the group Buffy Tuftedcheek (Pacific) Pseudocolaptes lawrencii johnsoni becomes Pacific Tuftedcheek Pseudocolaptes johnsoni. This split is based on plumage differences; deep genetic divergence (Derryberry et al. 2011), coupled with indications that Pacific Tuftedcheek may be sister to Streaked Tuftedcheek Pseudocolaptes boissonneautii rather than to Buffy Tuftedcheek (Harvey et al. 2020, Forcina et al. 2021); and vocal differences (Boesman 2016c) together with evidence of song discrimination (Freeman and Montgomery 2017).

References:

Boesman, P. 2016c. Notes on the vocalizations of Buffy Tuftedcheek (Pseudocolaptes lawrencii). HBW Alive Ornithological Note 87. In Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow-on.100087

Derryberry, E.P., S. Claramunt, G.Derryberry, R.T. Chesser, J. Cracraft, A. Aleixo, J. P√©rez-Em√°n, J. V. Remsen, Jr., and R.T. Brumfield. 2011. Lineage diversification and morphological evolution in a large-scale continental radiation: the Neotropical ovenbirds and woodcreepers (Aves: Furnariidae). Evolution 65: 2973‚Äď2986. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01374.x

Forcina, G., P. Boesman, and M. J. Jowers. 2021. Cryptic diversity in a Neotropical avian species complex untangled by neglected genetic evidence. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650521.2021.1915674

Freeman, B.G., and G.A. Montogomery. 2017. Using song playback experiments to measure species recognition between geographically isolated populations: a comparison with acoustic trait analyses. Auk 134: 857-870. https://doi.org/10.1642/AUK-17-63.1

Harvey, M.G., G.A. Bravo, S. Claramunt, A.M. Cuervo, G.E. Derryberry, J. Battilana, G.F. Seeholzer, J.S. McKay, B.C. O’Meara, B.C. Faircloth, S.V. Edwards, J. P√©rez-Em√°n, R.G. Moyle, F.H. Sheldon, A. Aleixo, B.T. Smith, R.T. Chesser, L.F. Silveira, J. Cracraft, R.T. Brumfield, and E.P. Derryberry. 2020. The evolution of a tropical biodiversity hotspot. Science 370: 1343-1348. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaz6970

 

page 317, Green Manakin Cryptopipo holochlora

Each of the two polytypic groups is recognized as a separate species, based on vocal differences (Boesman 2016d) and deep genetic divergence (Harvey et al. 2020). Therefore the group Green Manakin (Choco) Cryptopipo holochlora litae/suffusa becomes Choco Manakin Cryptopipo litae, with subspecies suffusa and litae; and the group Green Manakin (Green) Cryptopipo holochlora holochlora/viridior becomes Green Manakin Cryptopipo holochlora, with subspecies holochlora and viridior.

References:

Boesman, P. 2016d. Notes on the vocalizations of Green Manakin (Chloropipo holochlora). HBW Alive Ornithological Note 108. In Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow-on.100108

Harvey, M.G., G.A. Bravo, S. Claramunt, A.M. Cuervo, G.E. Derryberry, J. Battilana, G.F. Seeholzer, J.S. McKay, B.C. O’Meara, B.C. Faircloth, S.V. Edwards, J. P√©rez-Em√°n, R.G. Moyle, F.H. Sheldon, A. Aleixo, B.T. Smith, R.T. Chesser, L.F. Silveira, J. Cracraft, R.T. Brumfield, and E.P. Derryberry. 2020. The evolution of a tropical biodiversity hotspot. Science 370: 1343-1348. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaz6970

 

page 315, Blue-crowned Manakin Lepidothrix coronata

In accord with AOS-SACC (Proposal 943), Blue-crowned Manakin Lepidothrix coronata is split into two species, following Moncrieff et al. (2022): a polytypic Velvety Manakin Lepidothrix velutina, consisting of subspecies velutina and minuscula; and a polytypic Blue-capped Manakin Lepidothrix coronata, consisting of all other subspecies of the former Blue-crowned Manakin. Note the change in the English name of Lepidothrix coronata from Blue-crowned Manakin to Blue-capped Manakin.

Reference:

Moncrieff, A.E., B.C. Faircloth, and R.T. Brumfield. 2022. Systematics of Lepidothrix manakins (Aves: Passeriformes: Pipridae) using RADcap markers. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 173: 107525. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2022.107525

 

page 325, Olive-striped Flycatcher Mionectes olivaceus

Olive-striped Flycatcher is split into two species, based vocal differences (Boesman 2016e) and genetic evidence that the current arrangement of Olive-striped Flycatcher is paraphyletic (Harvey et al. 2020). As a result, the monotypic group Olive-striped Flycatcher (Olive-streaked) Mionectes olivaceus olivaceus becomes Olive-streaked Flycatcher Mionectes olivaceus; and the polytypic group Olive-striped Flycatcher (Olive-striped) Mionectes olivaceus [galbinus Group] becomes Olive-striped Flycatcher Mionectes galbinus, with subspecies hederaceus, galbinus, venezuelensis, and fasciaticollis.

Revise the range of subspecies hederaceus from “E Panama to w Colombia and w Ecuador” to “central and eastern Panama (west to Veraguas), northern and western Colombia, including the lower Cauca Valley, and western Ecuador (south to El Oro and Loja)”.

Reposition subspecies venezuelensis to precede, rather than to follow, fasciaticollis. Revise the range of venezuelensis from “Andes of s Colombia and n Venezuela; Trinidad” to “eastern Andes of Colombia (south at least to western Meta, probably to eastern Cauca) and the Serran√≠a del Perij√° east through northern Venezuale to Sucre; also Trinidad”.

Revise the range of fasciaticollis from “Andes of s Colombia to s Peru and extreme n Bolivia” to “east slope of the Andes from southern Colombia (Putumayo) south to southern Peru and northwestern Bolivia (La Paz)”.

References:

Boesman, P. 2016e. Notes on the vocalizations of Olive-striped Flycatcher (Mionectes olivaceus). HBW Alive Ornithological Note 117. In Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow-on.100117

Harvey, M.G., G.A. Bravo, S. Claramunt, A.M. Cuervo, G.E. Derryberry, J. Battilana, G.F. Seeholzer, J.S. McKay, B.C. O’Meara, B.C. Faircloth, S.V. Edwards, J. P√©rez-Em√°n, R.G. Moyle, F.H. Sheldon, A. Aleixo, B.T. Smith, R.T. Chesser, L.F. Silveira, J. Cracraft, R.T. Brumfield, and E.P. Derryberry. 2020. The evolution of a tropical biodiversity hotspot. Science 370: 1343-1348. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaz6970

 

page 330, Yellow-margined Flycatcher Tolmomyias assimilis

The monotypic group Yellow-margined Flycatcher (Yellow-winged) Tolmomyias assimilis flavotectus is recognized as a separate species, Yellow-winged Flycatcher Tolmomyias flavotectus; all remaining subspecies remain in Yellow-margined Flycatcher. Yellow-winged Flycatcher is basal to the rest of Tolmomyias, so retaining flavotectus in Yellow-margined Flycatcher would lead to a highly paraphyletic species (Harvey et al. 2020); flavotectus also is the most distinctive member of the Yellow-margined Flycatcher group vocally, although variation in vocalizations across this complex suggests that further splits may be warranted (Boesman 2016f).

References:

Boesman, P. 2016f. Notes on the vocalizations of Yellow-margined Flycatcher (Tolmomyias assimilis). HBW Alive Ornithological Note 121. In Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow-on.100121

Harvey, M.G., G.A. Bravo, S. Claramunt, A.M. Cuervo, G.E. Derryberry, J. Battilana, G.F. Seeholzer, J.S. McKay, B.C. O’Meara, B.C. Faircloth, S.V. Edwards, J. P√©rez-Em√°n, R.G. Moyle, F.H. Sheldon, A. Aleixo, B.T. Smith, R.T. Chesser, L.F. Silveira, J. Cracraft, R.T. Brumfield, and E.P. Derryberry. 2020. The evolution of a tropical biodiversity hotspot. Science 370: 1343-1348. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaz6970

 

pages 330-331, Yellow-breasted Flycatcher Tolmomyias flaviventris

Yellow-breasted Flycatcher is split into two species. These two species differ vocally (Boesman 2016g); are moderately divergent genetically (Almeida 2017, Harvey et al. 2020); and there is evidence of parapatry or sympatry in the Madeira-Tapajos interfluvium in central Brazil (Almeida 2017). Therefore the polytypic group Yellow-breasted Flycatcher (Olive-faced) Tolmomyias flaviventris [viridiceps Group] becomes Olive-faced Flycatcher Tolmomyias viridiceps, with subspecies viridiceps, zimmeri, and subsimilis; and the polytypic group Yellow-breasted Flycatcher (Ochre-lored) Tolmomyias flaviventris [flaviventris Group] becomes Ochre-lored Flycatcher Tolmomyias flaviventris, with subspecies aurulentus, dissors, and flaviventris.

References:

Almeida, C.I.M. 2017. Filogeografia de Tolmomyias flaviventris (Wied, 1831). Aves: Rhynchocyclidae. Unpublished thesis, Universidade Federal do Par√°, Belem. https:/biologia.ufpa.br/arquivos/tccspublicados/2017/Bacharelado/Camila%20Ingrid%20Marques%20Almeida.pdf

Boesman, P. 2016g. Notes on the vocalizations of Yellow-breasted Flycatcher (Tolmomyias flaviventris). HBW Alive Ornithological Note 123. In Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow-on.100123

Harvey, M.G., G.A. Bravo, S. Claramunt, A.M. Cuervo, G.E. Derryberry, J. Battilana, G.F. Seeholzer, J.S. McKay, B.C. O’Meara, B.C. Faircloth, S.V. Edwards, J. P√©rez-Em√°n, R.G. Moyle, F.H. Sheldon, A. Aleixo, B.T. Smith, R.T. Chesser, L.F. Silveira, J. Cracraft, R.T. Brumfield, and E.P. Derryberry. 2020. The evolution of a tropical biodiversity hotspot. Science 370: 1343-1348. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaz6970

 

page 332, Mouse-colored Tyrannulet Phaeomyias murina

Cocos Tyrannulet Nesotriccus ridgwayi is embedded within the genus Phaeomyias (Zucker et al. 2016, Harvey et al. 2020); as Nesotriccus Townsend 1895 has priority over Phaeomyias Berlepsch 1902, Phaemomyias is considered to be a junior synonym of Nesotriccus.

The presence of Cocos Tyrannulet within Mouse-colored Tyrannulet thus makes the latter to be paraphyletic; furthermore, the vocalizations of several taxa previously considered to be subspecies of Mouse-colored Tyrannulet are rather different (Ridgely and Greenfield 2001, Schulenberg et al. 2007, Boesman 2016j). Therefore Mouse-colored Tyrannulet is split into four species: the polytypic group Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (Tumbes) Phaeomyias murina tumbezana/inflava becomes Tumbes Tyrannulet Nesotriccus tumbezana, with subspecies tumbezana and inflava (but because the name Nesotriccus is masculine, while Phaeomyias is feminine, the correct formulations are Nesotriccus tumbezanus, with subspecies inflavus; we became aware of this mistake too late to correct in the eBird/Clements spreadsheet, but we will revise the name accordingly in our 2023 release; the monotypic group Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (Mara√Īon) Phaeomyias murina maranonica becomes Mara√Īon Tyrannulet Nesotriccus maranonica (for which the correct formulation is Nesotriccus maranonicus); the polytypic group Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (Northern) Phaeomyias murina incomta/eremonoma becomes Northern Mouse-colored Tyrannulet Nesotriccus incomta, with subspecies eremonoma and incomta (for which the correct formulations are Nesotriccus incomtus, with subspecies eremonomus); and the polytypic group Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (Amazonian) Phaeomyias murina murina/wagae becomes Southern Mouse-colored Tyrannulet Nesotriccus murina, with subspecies wagae and murina (for which the correct formulation is Nesotriccus murinus; but the name wagae is invariant).

References:

Boesman, P. 2016j. Notes on the vocalizations of Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (Phaeomyias murina). HBW Alive Ornithological Note 138. In Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow-on.100138

Harvey, M.G., G.A. Bravo, S. Claramunt, A.M. Cuervo, G.E. Derryberry, J. Battilana, G.F. Seeholzer, J.S. McKay, B.C. O’Meara, B.C. Faircloth, S.V. Edwards, J. P√©rez-Em√°n, R.G. Moyle, F.H. Sheldon, A. Aleixo, B.T. Smith, R.T. Chesser, L.F. Silveira, J. Cracraft, R.T. Brumfield, and E.P. Derryberry. 2020. The evolution of a tropical biodiversity hotspot. Science 370: 1343-1348. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaz6970

Ridgely, R.S., and P.J. Greenfield. 2001. The birds of Ecuador: status, distribution, and taxonomy. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.

Schulenberg, T.S., D.F. Stotz, D.F. Lane, J.P. O’Neill, and T.A. Parker III. 2007. Birds of Peru. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Zucker, M.C., M.G. Harvey, J.A. Oswald, A. Cuervo, E. Derryberry, and R.T. Brumfield. 2016. The Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (Phaeomyias murina) is a species complex that includes the Cocos Flycatcher (Nesotriccus ridgwayi), an island form that underwent a population bottleneck. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 101: 294-302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2016.04.031

 

page 319, Gray Elaenia Myiopagis caniceps

Genetic evidence indicates that Gray Elaenia is paraphyletic with respect to Foothill Elaenia Myiopagis olallai (Rheindt et al. 2009b, Cuervo et al, 2014); and there also is significant variation in vocalizations across Gray Elaenia (Cuervo et al. 2014, Boesman 2016). Therefore Gray Elaenia is split into three species: the polytypic group Gray Elaenia (Choco) Myiopagis caniceps parambae/absita becomes Choco Elaenia Myiopagis parambae, with subspecies parambae and absita; the monotypic group Gray Elaenia (Gray) Myiopagis caniceps cinerea becomes Amazonian Elaenia Myiopagis cinerea; and the monotypic group Gray Elaenia (Gray-headed) Myiopagis caniceps caniceps becomes Gray-headed Elaenia Myiopagis caniceps.

References:

Boesman, P. 2016h. Notes on the vocalizations of Grey Elaenia (Myiopagis caniceps). HBW Alive Ornithological Note 135. In Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow-on.100135

Cuervo, A.M., F.G. Stiles, M. Lentino, R.T. Brumfield, and E.P. Derryberry. 2014. Geographic variation and phylogenetic relationships of Myiopagis olallai (Aves: Passeriformes; Tyrannidae), with the description of two new taxa from the northern Andes. Zootaxa 3873: 1-24. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3873.1.1

Rheindt, F.E., L. Christidis, G.S. Cabanne, C. Miyaki, and J.A. Norman. 2009b. The timing of Neotropical speciation dynamics: A reconstruction of Myiopagis flycatcher diversification using phylogenetic and paleogeographic data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53: 961-971. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2009.09.001

 

page 318, Rough-legged Tyrannulet Phyllomyias burmeisteri

Rough-legged Tyrannulet is split into two species, based on levels of genetic divergence (Harvey et al. 2020) and on vocal differences (Boesman 2016i, Parra-Hern√°ndez et al. 2020). Subspecies zeledoni, wetmorei, viridiceps, bunites, and leucogenys are incorporated into White-fronted Tyrannulet Phyllomyias zeledoni; and Rough-legged Tyrannulet Phyllomyias burmeisteri becomes monotypic.

Change the names of the monotypic group Rough-legged Tyrannulet (Zeledon’s) Phyllomyias burmeisteri zeledoni to White-fronted Tyrannulet (Zeledon’s) Phyllomyias zeledoni zeledoni; and change the names of the polytypic group Rough-legged Tyrannulet (White-fronted) Phyllomyias burmeisteri [leucogonys Group] to White-fronted Tyrannulet (White-fronted) Phyllomyias zeledoni [leucogonys Group].

References:

Boesman, P. 2016i. Notes on the vocalizations of Rough-legged Tyrannulet (Phyllomyias burmeisteri). HBW Alive Ornithological Note 137. In Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow-on.100137

Harvey, M.G., G.A. Bravo, S. Claramunt, A.M. Cuervo, G.E. Derryberry, J. Battilana, G.F. Seeholzer, J.S. McKay, B.C. O’Meara, B.C. Faircloth, S.V. Edwards, J. P√©rez-Em√°n, R.G. Moyle, F.H. Sheldon, A. Aleixo, B.T. Smith, R.T. Chesser, L.F. Silveira, J. Cracraft, R.T. Brumfield, and E.P. Derryberry. 2020. The evolution of a tropical biodiversity hotspot. Science 370: 1343-1348. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaz6970

 

page 323, Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant Stigmatura napensis

The available genetic data, although limited, strongly suggests that the two subspecies of Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant are deeply divergent from one another, and that this species is paraphyletic with respect to Greater Wagtail-Tyrant Stigmatura budytoides (Harvey et al. 2020). Therefore we split this species: the monotypic group Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant (Lesser) Stigmatura napensis napensis becomes Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant Stigmatura napensis; and the monotypic group Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant (Bahia) Stigmatura napensis bahiae becomes Bahia Wagtail-Tyrant Stigmatura bahiae.

Revise the range of Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant from “Amazon system is. (se Colombia, e Ecuador, ne Peru and w Brazil)” to “along larger rivers of western and central Amazonia from eastern Ecuador (Napo River) and eastern Peru (Napo, Ucayali, and Amazon rivers) east to central Brazil (to the lower Tapaj√≥s River); also a population (possibly an undescribed taxon) in Orinoco drainages in extreme eastern Colombia (Vichada) and southwestern Venezuela (western Amazonas)”.

Revise the range of Bahia Wagtail-Tyrant from “River islands in e Brazil (Pernambuco and Bahia)” to “northeastern Brazil (Cear√° and Rio Grande do Norte south to southern Bahia)”.

Reference:

Harvey, M.G., G.A. Bravo, S. Claramunt, A.M. Cuervo, G.E. Derryberry, J. Battilana, G.F. Seeholzer, J.S. McKay, B.C. O’Meara, B.C. Faircloth, S.V. Edwards, J. P√©rez-Em√°n, R.G. Moyle, F.H. Sheldon, A. Aleixo, B.T. Smith, R.T. Chesser, L.F. Silveira, J. Cracraft, R.T. Brumfield, and E.P. Derryberry. 2020. The evolution of a tropical biodiversity hotspot. Science 370: 1343-1348. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaz6970

 

page 332, Bran-colored Flycatcher Myiophobus fasciatus

Bran-colored Flycatcher is split into three species, on the basis of plumage differences, parapatric distributions with no evidence of interbreeding (crypterythrus and rufescens), and vocal differences (Boesman 2016l, Kirwan et al. 2022). As a result, the polytypic group Bran-colored Flycatcher (Bran-colored) Myiophobus fasciatus [fasciatus Group], with subspecies furfurosus, fasciatus, saturatus, auriceps, and flammiceps, retains the names Bran-colored Flycatcher Myiophobus fasciatus; the monotypic group Bran-colored Flycatcher (Mouse-gray) Myiophobus fasciatus crypterythrus becomes Mouse-gray Flycatcher Myiophobus crypterythrus; and the monotypic group Bran-colored Flycatcher (Rufescent) Myiophobus fasciatus rufescens becomes Rufescent Flycatcher Myiophobus rufescens.

Revise the range of Mouse-gray Flycatcher from “Tropical sw Colombia to w Ecuador and extreme nw Peru” to “west of the Andes in southwestern Colombia, western Ecuador, and northwestern Peru (south to southern Lambayeque and southwestern Cajamarca)”.

Revise the range of Rufescent Flycatcher from “Arid w Peru (La Libertad) to extreme n Chile (Tarapac√°)” to “west of the Andes from northern Peru (northern La Libertad) south to extreme northren Chile (Arica)”.

References:

Boesman, P.2016l. Notes on the vocalizations of Bran-colored Flycatcher (Myiophobus fasciatus). HBW Alive Ornithological Note 144. In Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow-on.100144

Kirwan, G.M., A. Farnsworth, J. del Hoyo, D.J. Lebbin, and N. Collar. 2022. Bran-colored Flycatcher (Myiophobus fasciatus), version 2.0. In Birds of the World (T. S. Schulenberg, editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.brcfly1.02

 

page 335, Tropical Pewee Contopus cinereus

Genetic evidence indicates that Tropical Pewee is paraphyletic (Harvey et al. 2020), and vocalizations also differ significantly between populations (Boesman 2016m). Therefore this species is split into three species: a monotypic Tumbes Pewee Contopus punensis; a polytypic Southern Tropical Pewee Contopus cinereus, with subspecies pallescens and cinereus; and a polytypic Northern Tropical Pewee Contopus bogotensis, with subspecies brachytarsus, rhizophorus, aithalodes, bogotensis, and surinamensis. Note that the split does not align with the three previously recognized groups: we had included subspecies bogotensis and surinamensis together with pallescens and cinereus in the group Tropical Pewee (Tropical) Contopus cinereus [cinereus Group], but bogotensis and surinamensis instead are allied to the taxa in the group Tropical Pewee (Short-legged) Contopus cinereus [brachytarsus Group].

Revise the range of subspecies pallescens from “Extreme se Peru to e Brazil, Bolivia and nw Argentina” to “eastern Bolivia south to northwestern Argentina, and east to south central and eastern Brazil; rare austral migrant to southeastern Peru”.

References:

Boesman, P. 2016m. Notes on the vocalizations of Tropical Pewee (Contopus cinereus). HBW Alive Ornithological Note 148. In Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow-on.100148

Harvey, M.G., G.A. Bravo, S. Claramunt, A.M. Cuervo, G.E. Derryberry, J. Battilana, G.F. Seeholzer, J.S. McKay, B.C. O’Meara, B.C. Faircloth, S.V. Edwards, J. P√©rez-Em√°n, R.G. Moyle, F.H. Sheldon, A. Aleixo, B.T. Smith, R.T. Chesser, L.F. Silveira, J. Cracraft, R.T. Brumfield, and E.P. Derryberry. 2020. The evolution of a tropical biodiversity hotspot. Science 370: 1343-1348. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaz6970

 

page 337, Slaty-backed Chat-Tyrant Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris

The three groups – Slaty-backed Chat-Tyrant (Slaty-backed) Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris cinnamomeiventris, Slaty-backed Chat-Tyrant (Blackish) Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris nigrita, and Slaty-backed Chat-Tyrant (Maroon-belted) Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris thoracica/angustifasciata – differ in plumage, and there is no evidence of introgression between any members of the complex. Vocalizations of nigrita are not well documented, but vocalizatons differ significantly between nominate cinnamomeiventris and thoracica/angustifasciata (Schulenberg et al. 2007, Boesman 2016q). Therefore we recognize three species: a monotypic Chestnut-bellied Chat-Tyrant Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris (note the change in the English name); a monotypic Blackish Chat-Tyrant Ochthoeca nigrita; and a polytypic Maroon-belted Chat-Tyrant Ochthoeca thoracica, with subspecies thoracica and angustifasciata.

Revise the range of subspecies angustifasciata from “Andes of n Peru (s Amazonas, San Mart√≠n and Cajamarca)” to “Andes of northern Peru in Amazonas (south and east of the Mara√Ī√≥n Valley) and San Mart√≠n, populations south of Hu√°nuco probably also this subspecies; also locally in east central and southeastern Cajamarca, west of the Mara√Ī√≥n Valley”.

References:

Boesman, P. 2016q. Notes on the vocalizations of Slaty-backed Chat-tyrant (Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris). HBW Alive Ornithological Note 253. In Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow-on.100253

Schulenberg, T.S., D.F. Stotz, D.F. Lane, J.P. O’Neill, and T.A. Parker III. 2007. Birds of Peru. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

 

page 338, Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant Ochthoeca fumicolor

The monotypic group Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant (Rufous-browed) Ochthoeca fumicolor superciliosa is recognized as a separate species, Rufous-browed Chat-Tyrant Ochthoeca superciliosa, on the basis of plumage differences and the absence of evidence of introgression, despite being only narrowly allopatric from other populations of Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant.

 

page 518, White-browed Scrubwren Sericornis frontalis

The polytypic group White-browed Scrubwren (Spotted) Sericornis frontalis [maculatus Group], with subspecies balstoni, maculatus, mellori, and ashbyi, is elevated to species rank as Spotted Scrubwren Sericornis maculatus, based on patterns of genetic divergence (Norman et al. 2018). Inclusion of subspecies ashbyi in Spotted Scrubwren is provisional; this treatment is consistent with the traditional delineation of these groups (e.g. Mayr 1986) and with patterns of variation in iris color (Cake 2019); but genetic data links ashbyi instead to White-browed Scrubwren (Norman et al. 2018).

Revise the range description of subspecies mellori from “Southern Australia (Hopetoun, Western Australia to Adelaide)” to “southwestern Australia (southern Western Australia east along coast to southeastern South Australia)”.

Reposition subspecies ashbyi to follow, rather than precede, subspecies mellori.

The sequence of subspecies in the polytypic group White-browed Scrubwren (White-browed) Sericornis frontalis [frontalis Group] is revised (almost reversed), from rosinae, harterti, flindersi, frontalis, and tweedi to tweedi, frontalis, harterti, rosinae, and flindersi.

References:

Cake, M. 2019. Regional variation in iris colour of the White-browed Scrubwren Sericornis frontalis complex in digital photographs. Australian Field Ornithology 36: 148‚Äď153. https://doi.org/10.20938/afo36148153.

Mayr, E. 1986. Family Acanthizidae, Australasian warblers. Pages 409-460 in E. Mayr and G.W. Cottrell (editors), Check-list of the birds of the world. Volume XI. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.  https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/14484110

Norman, J.A., L. Christidis, and R. Schodde. 2018. Ecological and evolutionary diversification in the Australo-Papuan scrubwrens (Sericornis) and mouse-warblers (Crateroscelis), with a revision of the subfamily Sericornithinae (Aves: Passeriformes: Acanthizidae). Organisms Diversity & Evolution 18: 241-259. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13127-018-0364-8

 

page 522, Fan-tailed Gerygone Gerygone flavolateralis

The monotypic group Fan-tailed Gerygone (Rennell) Gerygone flavolateralis citrina is recognized as a species, Rennell Gerygone Gerygone citrina, on the basis of differences in plumage and iris color (del Hoyo and Collar 2016; see also Dutson 2011); songs also may differ between the two species, but songs of most subspecies (correiae, rouxi, and lifuensis) of Fan-tailed Gerygone have not been documented.

References:

Dutson, G. 2011. Birds of Melanesia. The Bismarcks, Solomons, Vanuatu and New Caledonia. Christopher Helm, London.

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 2. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page 483, Crested Shrike-tit Falcunculus frontatus

Each of the three monotypic groups is recognized as a species, based on differences in plumage and on morphometrics (Schodde and Mason 1999). The group Crested Shrike-tit (Eastern) Falcunculus frontatus frontatus becomes Eastern Shrike-tit Falcunculus frontatus; the group Crested Shrike-tit (Western) Falcunculus frontatus leucogaster becomes Western Shrike-tit Falcunculus leucogaster; and the group Crested Shrike-tit (Northern) Falcunculus frontatus whitei becomes Northern Shrike-tit Falcunculus whitei.

Reference:

Schodde, R., and I.J. Mason. 1999. The directory of Australian birds. Passerines. CSIRO Publishing, Canberra.

 

page 467, Cape Batis Batis capensis

A representative (presumably subspecies erythrophthalma) of the polytypic group Cape Batis (Gray-mantled) Batis capensis [erythrophthalma Group] recently has been found to be sympatic with a representative of the polytypic group Cape Batis (Malawi) Batis capensis dimorpha/sola in southern Malawi (Dowsett in preparation). Therefore Cape Batis (Malawi) is recognized as a separate species, Malawi Batis Batis dimorpha, with subspecies sola and dimorpha.

Revise the range description of subspecies erythrophthalma from “E highlands of Zimbabwe and adjacent w Mozambique” to “eastern highlands of Zimbabwe and adjacent western Mozambique, also locally in southern Malawi”.

 

page 577, Blue Vanga Cyanolanius madagascarinus

Blue Vanga is split into two species, based on differences in plumage in both sexes (del Hoyo and Collar 2016). The polytypic group Blue Vanga (Comoro) Cyanolanius madagascarinus comorensis/bensoni becomes Comoros Blue Vanga Cyanolanius comorensis, with subspecies comorensis and bensoni; and the monotypic group Blue Vanga (Madagascar) Cyanolanius madagascarinus madagascarinus becomes Madagascar Blue Vanga Cyanolanius madagascarinus.

Reference:

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 2. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page 349, Rufous-naped Lark Mirafra africana

The monotypic group Rufous-naped Lark (Somali) Mirafra africana sharpii is recognized as a separate species, Sharpe’s Lark Mirafra sharpii. Unpublished genetic data (Alstr√∂m et al. in preparation) show that sharpii forms a clade with Red-winged Lark Mirafra hypermetra and Somali Long-billed Lark Mirafra somalica, from which it differs in plumage and morphology (Donald and Alstr√∂m, in preparation); therefore sharpii can not be treated as a subspecies of Rufous-naped Lark.

 

page 419, Black-throated Prinia Prinia atrogularis

Each of the two monotypic groups is recognized as a separate species, based on differences in plumage (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) and in song and genetic divergenve (Groot 2021): therefore Black-throated Prinia (Black-throated) Prinia atrogularis atrogularis becomes Black-throated Prinia Prinia atrogularis, and Black-throated Prinia (Rufous-crowned) Prinia atrogularis khasiana becomes Rufous-crowned Prinia Prinia khasiana.

References:

Groot, D. 2021. A deep dive into the Prinia atrogularis complex: a tale of birds and taxonomy. Masters thesis, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1531220/FULLTEXT01.pdf

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 2. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page 439, Mountain Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus trivirgatus

The polytypic group Mountain Leaf Warbler (Philippines) Phylloscopus trivirgatus [nigrorum Group], with subspecies benguetensis, peterseni, nigrorum, diuatae, mindanensis, malindangensis, and flavostriatus, is recognized as a separate species, Negros Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus nigrorum. The Philippine taxa differ in plumage from other subspecies of Mountain Leaf Warbler (del Hoyo and Collar 2016), and genetic data indicates that the Philippine taxa are not sister to other representatives of Mountain Leaf Warbler (Olsson et al. 2005, Alström et al. unpublished).

References:

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 2. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Olsson, U., P. Alstr√∂m, P.G.P. Ericson, and P. Sundberg. 2005. Non-monophyletic taxa and cryptic species‚ÄĒevidence from a molecular phylogeny of leaf-warblers (Phylloscopus, Aves). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 261‚Äď276.¬† ¬† https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2005.01.012

 

page 439, Sulawesi Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus sarasinorum

The two monotypic groups of Sulawesi Leaf Warbler differ significantly in plumage and song (Berryman and Eaton 2020), and genetic data indicates that these are not sister taxa (Alström et al. unpublished). Therefore each is recognized as a separate species: the group Sulawesi Leaf Warbler (Sulawesi) Phylloscopus sarasinorum nesophilus retains the names Sulawesi Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus nesophilus, and the group Sulawesi Leaf Warbler (Lompobattang) Phylloscopus sarasinorum sarasinorum becomes Lompobattang Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus sarasinorum.

Reference:

Berryman, A.J., and J.A. Eaton. 2020. Vocalisations and taxonomy of the Sulawesi Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus sarasinorum complex, including discussion of a novel undescribed taxon from Selayar, Indonesia. Forktail 36: 90‚Äď96.

 

page addition (2022), Meratus White-eye Zosterops meratusensis

We recognize the newly described species Meratus White-eye Zosterops meratusensis Irham, Haryoko, Shakya, Mitchell, Burner, Bocos, Eaton, Rheindt, Suparno, Sheldon, and Prawiradilaga 2022 (Irham et al. 2022; see also Eaton et al. 2016, Shakya et al. 2018), with range “Meratus Mountains, South Kalimantan, southeastern Borneo”. Insert Meratus White-eye immediately following Lemon-bellied White-eye Zosterops chloris (Irham et al. 2022).

References:

Eaton, J.A., B. van Balen, N.W. Brickle, and F.E. Rheindt. 2016. Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago: Greater Sundas and Wallacea. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Irham, M., T. Haryoko, S.B. Shakya, S.L. Mitchell, R.C. Burner, C. Bocos, J.A. Eaton, F.E. Rheindt, S. Suparno, F.H. Sheldon, and D.M. Prawiradilaga. 2022. Description of two new bird species from the Meratus Mountains of southeast Borneo, Indonesia. Journal of Ornithology 163: 575‚Äď588.¬† https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-021-01937-2

Shakya, S.B., T. Haryoko, R.C. Burner, D.M. Prawiradilaga, and F.H. Sheldon. 2018. Preliminary assessment of community composition and phylogeographic relationships of the birds of the Meratus Mountains, southeastern Borneo, Indonesia. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 138: 45‚Äď66. https://doi.org/10.25226/bboc.v138i1.2018.a6

 

page 502, Gray-cheeked Tit-Babbler Mixornis flavicollis

Each of the two monotypic groups is recognized as a species, based on plumage and vocal differences (del Hoyo and Collar 2016, Cros and Rheindt 2017). Therefore Gray-cheeked Tit-Babbler (Gray-cheeked) Mixornis flavicollis flavicollis retains the names Gray-cheeked Tit-Babbler Mixornis flavicollis, and Gray-cheeked Tit-Babbler (Kangean) Mixornis flavicollis prillwitzi becomes Kangean Tit-Babbler Mixornis prillwitzi.

References:

Cros, E., and F.E. Rheindt. 2017. Massive bioacoustic analysis suggests introgression across Pleistocene land bridges in Mixornis tit-babblers. Journal of Ornithology 158: 407‚Äď419. https:/doi.org/10.1007/s10336-016-1411-x

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 2. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page 501, Chestnut-winged Babbler Cyanoderma erythropterum

Chestnut-winged Babbler is split into two species, based on pronounced differences in plumage and voice (Eaton et al. 2016, Cros et al. 2020), and evidence of a long-standing lack of gene flow (Cros et al. 2020). The polytpic group Chestnut-winged Babbler (Chestnut-winged) Cyanoderma erythropterum [erythropterum Group], with subspecies erythropterum, pyrrhophaeum, and fulviventre, retains the names Chestnut-winged Babbler Cyanoderma erythropterum; and the

polytypic group Chestnut-winged Babbler (Gray-hooded) Cyanoderma erythropterum bicolor/rufum, with subspecies bicolor and rufum, becomes Gray-hooded Babbler Cyanoderma bicolor.

References:

Cros, E., B. Chattopadhyay, K.M. Garg, N.S.R. Ng, S. Tomassi, S. Benedick, D.P. Edwards, and F.E. Rheindt. 2020. Quaternary land bridges have not been universal conduits of gene flow. Molecular Ecology 29: 2692‚Äď 2706. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.15509

Eaton, J.A., B. van Balen, N.W. Brickle, and F.E. Rheindt. 2016. Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago: Greater Sundas and Wallacea. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page 497, Coral-billed Scimitar-Babbler Pomatorhinus ferruginosus

Coral-billed Scimitar-Babbler is split into two species based on distinct plumage differences and differences in vocalisations (Rasmussen and Anderton 2012, del Hoyo and Collar 2016). The monotypic group Coral-billed Scimitar-Babbler (Black-crowned) Pomatorhinus ferruginosus ferruginosus becomes Black-crowned Scimitar-Babbler Pomatorhinus ferruginosus; the second species is a polytypic Brown-crowned Scimitar-Babbler Pomatorhinus phayrei. Change the names of the polytypic group Coral-billed Scimitar-Babbler (Phayre’s) Pomatorhinus ferruginosus phayrei/stanfordi to Brown-crowned Scimitar-Babbler (Phayre’s) Pomatorhinus phayrei phayrei/stanfordi; and change the names of the polytypic group Coral-billed Scimitar-Babbler (albogularis Group) Pomatorhinus ferruginosus [albogularis Group] to Brown-crowned Scimitar-Babbler (albogularis Group) Pomatorhinus phayrei [albogularis Group].

References:

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 2. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Rasmussen, P.C., and J.C. Anderton. 2012. Birds of South Asia. The Ripley guide. Volume 2: attributes and status. Second Edition. Smithsonian Institution and Lynx Edicions, Washington D.C. and Barcelona.

 

page 497, Chestnut-backed Scimitar-Babbler Pomatorhinus montanus

Chestnut-backed Scimitar-Babbler is split into two species based on differences in plumage, vocalizations. and habitat/elevation (Eaton et al. 2016). Therefore the polytypic group Chestnut-backed Scimitar-Babbler (Sunda) Pomatorhinus montanus bornensis/occidentalis, with subspecies bornensis and occidentalis, becomes Sunda Scimitar-Babbler Pomatorhinus bornensis; and the polytypic group Chestnut-backed Scimitar-Babbler (Javan) Pomatorhinus montanus montanus/ottolanderi, with subspecies montanus and ottolanderi, becomes Javan Scimitar-Babbler Pomatorhinus montanus.

Reference:

Eaton, J.A., B. van Balen, N.W. Brickle, and F.E. Rheindt. 2016. Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago: Greater Sundas and Wallacea. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page 598, Common Hill Myna Gracula religiosa

page 598, Enggano Myna Gracula enganensis

page 598, Nias Myna Gracula robusta

The Common Hill Myna complex was reviewed by Ng et al. (2021), based on genetic and morphological characters, with additional work on this group still in progress (based on the same of characters, but with a consideration of vocal characters as well). As a result of this ongoing research, we implement the following changes. The monotypic group Common Hill Myna (Tenggara) Gracula religiosa venerata is recognized as a separate species, Tenggara Hill Myna Gracula venerata; the vocalizations of this taxon are extremely different, and it is deeply divergent genetically (unpublished data). Enggano Myna and Nias Myna both are lumped into Common Hill Myna, although we continue to recognize each as a separate monotypic group, Common Hill Myna (Nias) Gracula religiosa robusta and Common Hill Myna (Enggano) Gracula religiosa enganensis; both of these taxa exhibit only very shallow genetic divergence from, and vocally are similar to, Common Hill Myna (unpublished data).

Following Ng et al. (2021), we recognize subspecies miotera Oberholser 1912, with range “Simeulue (off the west coast of Sumatra); probably extinct in the wild”; this subspecies previously was considered to be a junior synonym of nominate religiosa (Amadon 1962), but is genetically and morphologically distinct (Ng et al. 2021). Insert miotera immediately following subspecies palawanensis. We also recognize miotera as a new monotypic group, Common Hiill Myna (Simeulue) Gracula religiosa miotera.

Reference:

Amadon, D. 1962. Family Sturnidae, starlings. Pages 75-121 in E. Mayr and J.C. Greenway, Jr. (editors), Check-list of birds of the world. Volume XV. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/14485448

Ng, D.Y.J., T. ҆vejcarov√°, K.R. Sadanandan, T.R. Ferasyi, J.G.H. Lee, D.M. Prawiradilaga, T. Ouhel, E.Y.X. Ng, and F.E. Rheindt. 2021. Genomic and morphological data help uncover extinction-in-progress of an unsustainably traded hill myna radiation. Ibis 163: 38-51. https://doi.org/10.1111/ibi.12839

 

Page 599, Asian Pied Starling Gracupica contra

Asian Pied Starling is split into three species: a poltypic Indian Pied Starling Gracupica contra, with subspecies contra, sordida, and superciliaris; a monotypic Siamese Pied Starling Gracupica floweri; and a monotypic Javan Pied Starling Gracupica jalla. Note that we previously floweri, now recognized as a species, in the group Asian Pied Starling (Asian) Gracupica contra [contra Group]. These splits are based on patterns of genetic divergence, including evidence of a lack of gene flow between Indian Pied Starling and Siamese Pied Starling despite parapatric distributions (Baveja et al. 2020).

Revise the range of Javan Pied Starling from “Sumatra, Java and Bali” to “eastern Sumatra (where possibly introduced), Java, and Bali; probably extinct in the wild”.

Reference:

Baveja, P., K.M. Garg, B. Chattopadhyay, K.R. Sadanandan, D.M. Prawiradilaga, P. Yuda, J.G.H. Lee, amd F.E. Rheindt. 2021. Using historical genome-wide DNA to unravel the confused taxonomy in a songbird lineage that is extinct in the wild. Evolutionary Applications 14: 698-709. https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.13149

 

page 598, Vinous-breasted Starling Acridotheres burmannicus

Each of the two monotypic groups is recognized as a species, based on differences in plumage and bare parts colors, and in proportions (del Hoyo and Collar 2016). Additionally, we change the English group name from ‘starling’ to ‘myna’, to be consistent with the names of other species of Acridotheres. Therefore the monotypic group Vinous-breasted Starling (Burmese) Acridotheres burmannicus burmannicus becomes Burmese Myna Acridotheres burmannicus; and the monotypic group Vinous-breasted Starling (Vinous-breasted) Acridotheres burmannicus leucocephalus becomes Vinous-breasted Myna Acridotheres leucocephalus.

Revise the range of Burmese Myna from “Myanmar to central Thailand and extreme sw China (Yunnan)” to “Myanmar and southwestern China (southwestern Yunnan)”.

Revise the range of Vinous-breasted Myna from “S Thailand to Cambodia and s Indochina” to “Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, perhaps also extreme southern Myanmar (Tenasserim)”.

Reference:

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 2. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page 407, Groundscraper Thrush Psophocichla litsitsirupa

Change the scientific name of Groundscraper Thrush from Psophocichla litsitsirupa to Turdus litsitsirupa. The monotypic group Groundscraper Thrush (Heath) Psophocichla litsitsirupa simensis is recognized as a separate species, Ethiopian Thrush Turdus simensis, based on a deep genetic divergence (Nylander et al. 2008) and vocal differences (Boesman 2016s).

References:

Boesman, P. 2016s. Notes on the vocalizations of Groundscraper Thrush (Psophocichla litsitsirupa). HBW Alive Ornithological Note 303 in Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow-on.100303

Nylander, J.A.A., U. Olsson, P. Alström, and I. Sanmartín. 2008. Accounting for phylogenetic uncertainty in biogeography: a Bayesian approach to dispersal-vicariance analysis of the thrushes (Aves: Turdus). Systematic Biology 57: 257-268.           https://doi.org/10.1080/10635150802044003

 

pages 459-460, White-rumped Shama Copsychus malabaricus

The polytypic group White-rumped Shama (White-crowned) Copsychus malabaricus stricklandii/barbouri, with subspecies stricklandii and barbouri, is recognized as a separate species, White-crowned Shama Copsychus stricklandii, based on its distinct plumage and the demonstration of almost no nuclear admixture and introgression between the two forms despite a narrow hybrid zone (Lim et al. 2017).

We add a newly described subspecies of White-rumped Shama, Copsychus malabaricus ngae Wu and Rheindt 2022, with range “islands on the west side of the Thai-Malay Peninsula (from the Thai/Myanmar border south to the Langkawi archipelago at the Thai/Malayasian border)” (Wu and Rheindt 2022). Insert subspecies ngae immediately following subspecies macrourus. We also recognize this subspecies as a new monotypic group, White-rumped Shama (Long-tailed) Copsychus malabaricus ngae.

References:

Lim, H.C., D.F. Gawin, S.B. Shakya, M.G. Harvey, M.A. Rahman, and F.H. Sheldon. 2017. Sundaland‚Äôs east‚Äďwest rain forest population structure: variable manifestations in four polytypic bird species examined using RAD-Seq and plumage analyses. Journal of Biogeography 44:2 259‚Äď2271. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13031

Wu, M.Y., and F.E. Rheindt. 2022. A distinct new subspecies of the white-rumped shama Copsychus malabaricus at imminent risk of extinction. Journal of Ornithology 163: 659‚Äď669. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-022-01977-2

 

page 453, Blue-breasted Flycatcher Cyornis herioti

Each of the monotypic groups is recognized as a separate species, based on plumage differences between the two taxa that are commensurate with those between other species pairs in the genus (del Hoyo and Collar 2016, Allen 2020). Therefore the group Blue-breasted Flycatcher (Blue-breasted) Cyornis herioti herioti retains the names Blue-breasted Blue Flycatcher Cyornis herioti, and the group Blue-breasted Flycatcher (Rufous-breasted) Cyornis herioti camarinensis becomes Rufous-breasted Blue Flycatcher Cyornis camarinensis.

References:

Allen, D. 2020. Birds of the Philippines. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 2. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page addition (2022), Meratus Blue Flycatcher Cyornis kadayangensis

We recognize the newly described species Meratus Blue Flycatcher Cyornis kadayangensis Irham, Haryoko, Shakya, Mitchell, Burner, Bocos, Eaton, Rheindt, Suparno, Sheldon, and Prawiradilaga 2022 (Irham et al. 2022; see also Eaton et al. 2016, Shakya et al. 2018), with range “Meratus Mountains, South Kalimantan, southeastern Borneo”. Insert Meratus Blue Flycatcher immediately following Dayak Blue Flycatcher Cyornis montanus (Irham et al. 2022).

References:

Eaton, J.A., B. van Balen, N.W. Brickle, and F.E. Rheindt. 2016. Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago: Greater Sundas and Wallacea. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Irham, M., T. Haryoko, S.B. Shakya, S.L. Mitchell, R.C. Burner, C. Bocos, J.A. Eaton, F.E. Rheindt, S. Suparno, F.H. Sheldon, and D.M. Prawiradilaga. 2022. Description of two new bird species from the Meratus Mountains of southeast Borneo, Indonesia. Journal of Ornithology 163: 575‚Äď588.¬† https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-021-01937-2

Shakya, S.B., T. Haryoko, R.C. Burner, D.M. Prawiradilaga, and F.H. Sheldon. 2018. Preliminary assessment of community composition and phylogeographic relationships of the birds of the Meratus Mountains, southeastern Borneo, Indonesia. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 138: 45‚Äď66. https://doi.org/10.25226/bboc.v138i1.2018.a6

 

page 454, Sulawesi Blue Flycatcher Cyornis omissus

The monotypic group Sulawesi Blue Flycatcher (Kalao) Cyornis omissus kalaoensis is recognized as a separate species, Kalao Blue Flycatcher Cyornis kalaoensis, based on strong vocal differences (Gwee et al. 2019a).

Reference:

Gwee, C.Y., J.A. Eaton, K.M. Garg, P. Alström, S. Van Balen, R.O. Hutchinson, D.M. Prawiradilaga, M.H. Le, and F.E. Rheindt. 2019. Cryptic diversity in Cyornis (Aves: Muscicapidae) jungle-flycatchers flagged by simple bioacoustic approaches. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 186: 725-741. https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlz003

 

page 453, Vivid Niltava Niltava vivida

Each of the two monotypic groups is recognized as a separate species, based on based on differences in size and in female plumage, and on differences in song (Alström, unpublished). Therefore the group Vivid Niltava (Chinese) Niltava vivida oatesi becomes Chinese Vivid Niltava Niltava oatesi, and the group Vivid Niltava (Taiwan) Niltava vivida vivida becomes Taiwan Vivid Niltava Niltava vivida.

Revise the range of Chinese Vivid Niltava from “SE Tibet to sw China, ne India, Myanmar and n Vietnam” to “breeds in southern China (from southeastern Xizang east to southwestern Sichuan and Yunnan) and probably adjacent northern Myanmar; winters from northeastern India (where possibly resident), Myanmar, and northern Thailand”.

 

page 447, Flores Jungle-Flycatcher Cyornis oscillans

Remove the hyphen from the group name ‘jungle-flycatcher’, as this name is applied to species in three different genera (Cyornis, Eumyias, and Vauriella). Flores Jungle Flycatcher is one of several species that are removed from the genus Cyornis and reclassified in Eumyias, based on differences in the pattern of the song (Eaton et al. 2016) and on unpublished genetic data. Change the scientific name of Flores Jungle Flycatcher from Cyornis oscillans to Eumyias oscillans. Each of the two monotypic groups is recognized as a separate species, based on plumage and vocal differences (Eaton et al. 2016, del Hoyo and Collar 2016). The group Flores Jungle-Flycatcher (Russet-backed) Cyornis oscillans oscillans becomes Flores Jungle Flycatcher Eumyias oscillans, and the group Flores Jungle-Flycatcher (Sumba) Cyornis oscillans stresemanni becomes Sumba Jungle Flycatcher Eumyias stresemanni. Reposition these species to follow Zappey’s Flycatcher Cyanoptila cumatilis, Matinan Flycatcher Eumyias sanfordi, Blue-fronted Flycatcher Eumyias hoevelli, and Timor Blue Flycatcher Eumyias hyacinthinus.

References:

Eaton, J.A., B. van Balen, N.W. Brickle, and F.E. Rheindt. 2016. Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago: Greater Sundas and Wallacea. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 2. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page 455, Forest Robin Stiphrornis erythrothorax

Genetic surveys across the range of Forest Robin consistently reveal a great deal of population structure (as assessed by mitochondrial DNA: Beresford and Cracraft 1999, Schmidt et al. 2008, Voelker et al. 2017, Dongmo et al. 2019), and sympatry is reported between two of these populations (Boano et al. 2015). Therefore we recognize three species, corresponding to the three most deeply divergent clades. The three species we recognize are: a monotypic Olive-backed Forest Robin Stiphrornis pyrrholaemus; a polytypic Orange-breasted Forest Robin Stiphrornis erythrothorax, with subspecies erythrothorax, gabonensis, and xanthogaster; and a polytypic Yellow-breasted Forest Robin Stiphrornis mabirae, with subspecies sanghensis and mabirae. This genus is a complicated taxonomic riddle that requires much further work in the future, with a focus on vocalizations as well as on data from nuclear genes, and with sampling at or near type localities. Also note that we revise the ranges of some taxa, so that the names here applied to some populations may differ from the nomenclature used in the references we cite (especially with regard to xanthogaster).

Revise the range of Olive-backed Forest Robin from “coastal Gabon, south of the Ogoou√© River” to “Not well known, but reported in southwestern Gabon south of the Ogoou√© River, and in northeastern Gabon north of the Ogoou√© River”.

The taxa erythrothorax, gabonensis, and xanthogaster (all Orange-breasted Forest Robin) continue to be recognized as a subspecies, but we dissolve the former monotypic groups Forest Robin (Western) Stiphrornis erythrothorax erythrothorax, Forest Robin (Gabon) Stiphrornis erythrothorax gabonensis, and Forest Robin (Eastern) Stiphrornis erythrothorax xanthogaster. Revise the range of nominate erythrothorax from “Sierra Leone to s Nigeria” to “Sierra Leone to southwestern Ghana”. Revise the range of subspecies gabonensis from “Coastal Cameroon and Gabon; Bioko (Gulf of Guinea)” to “Ghana (except southwest) east to central Cameroon and northern Gabon; Bioko (Gulf of Guinea)”. Revise the range of subspecies xanthogaster from “southeastern Cameroon south to eastern Gabon, east to northern Democratic Republic of the Congo, extreme southwestern South Sudan, and western Uganda” to “Poorly known; documented from southeastern Cameroon, but presumably also in adjacent northeastern Gabon and northwestern Republic of the Congo”.

We add a previously overlooked subspecies, sanghensis Beresford and Cracraft 1999 (Beresford and Cracraft 1999), with range “Poorly known; occurs from southwestern Central African Republic east at least to north central Democratic Republic of the Congo”; we consider rudderi Voelker, Tobler, Prestridge, Duijm, Groenenberg, Hutchinson, Martin, Nieman, Roselaar and Huntley 2017 (Voelker et al 2017) to be a junior synonym of sanghensis. Insert sanghensis immediately following the species heading for Yellow-breasted Forest Robin. We also reinstate subspecies mabirae Jackson 1910, listed in Clements (2007) as a junior synonym of xanthogaster, and now assigned the range “extreme southwestern South Sudan and western and southern Uganda; western distributional limits not well defined, but presumably extends into northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo”.

References:

Beresford, P., and J. Cracraft. 1999. Speciation in African Forest Robins (Stiphrornis): species Limits, phylogenetic relationships, and molecular biogeography. American Museum Novitates number 3270. https://digitallibrary.amnh.org/handle/2246/3048

Boano, G., N. Vinal, A. Durante, and M. Pavia. 2015. Apparent sympatry of Stiphrornis pyrrholaemus Schmidt & Angehr, 2008 and S. xanthogaster Sharpe, 1903 (Passeriformes: Muscicapidae) in Gabon, and taxonomic implications. Zootaxa 4032: 127-133. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4032.1.7

Clements, J.F. 2007. The Clements checklist of birds of the world. Sixth edition. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.

Dongmo, J.B., J.M. DaCosta, C. Djieto-Lordon, P. Ngassam, and M.D. Sorenson. 2019. Variable phylogeographic histories of five forest birds with populations in Upper and Lower Guinea: implications for taxonomy and evolutionary conservation. Ostrich 90:3257-270. https://doi.org/10.2989/00306525.2019.1642251

Schmidt, B.K., J.T. Foster, G.R. Angehr, K.L. Durrant, and R.C. Fleisher. 2008. A new species of African forest robin from Gabon (Passeriformes: Muscicapidae: Stiphrornis). Zootaxa 1850: 27-42. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1850.1.2

Voelker, G., M. Tobler, H.L. Prestridge, E. Duijm, D. Groenenberg, M.R. Hutchinson, A.D. Martin, A. Nieman, C.S. Roselaar, and J.W. Huntley. 2016. Three new species of Stiphrornis (Aves: Muscicapidae) from the Afro-tropics, with a molecular phylogenetic assessment of the genus. Systematics and Biodiversity 15: 87-104. https://doi.org/10.1080/14772000.2016.1226978

 

page 455, Bocage’s Akalat Sheppardia bocagei

Bocage’s Akalat is split into two species, primarily based on dramatic vocal and habitat differences, maintained even in areas where the distributions of the two closely approach one another (Moyer 2006; see also Prigogine 1987): a polytypic Short-tailed Akalat Sheppardia poensis, with subspecies granti, poensis, kaboboensis, schoutedeni, and kungwensis; and a polytypic Bocage’s Akalat Sheppardia bocagei, with subspecies bocagei, ilyai, and chapini. Note that this split breaks up the previously recognized polytypic group Bocage’s Akalat (Bocage’s) Sheppardia bocagei [bocagei Group], with some subspecies (kaboboensis, schoutedeni, and kungwensi) transferred to Short-tailed Akalat, and three others (bocagei, ilyai, and chapini) retained in Bocage’s Akalat.

References:

Moyer, D.C. 2006. Biodiversity of Mahale Mountains National Park. Unpublished report to the Mahale Ecosystems Monitoring Project & Frankfurt Zoological Society. Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania (WCST), Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.

Prigogine, A. 1987. Non-conspecificity of Cossypha insulana Grote and Cossypha bocagei Finsch and Hartlaub, with the description of a new subspecies of Cossypha bocagei from western Tanzania. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 107: 49‚Äď55. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/40083932

 

page 413, White-browed Shortwing Brachypteryx montana

White-browed Shortwing is split into no fewer than five species, based on deep genetic divergence between populations (Kyriazis et al. 2018, Shakya et al. 2020) and genetic evidence that White-browed Shortwing is paraphyletic with respect to Lesser Shortwing Brachypteryx leucophris (Shakya et al. 2020), coupled with differences in plumage (especially in female plumage) and in song (Eaton et al. 2016, del Hoyo and Collar 2016). Therefore we recognize the following species: the polytypic group White-browed Shortwing (Philippine) Brachypteryx montana [poliogyna Group], with subspecies poliogyna, andersoni, mindorensis, brunneiceps, mindanensis, and sillimani becomes Philippine Shortwing Brachypteryx poliogyna; the monotypic group White-browed Shortwing (Bornean) Brachypteryx montana erythrogyna becomes Bornean Shortwing Brachypteryx erythrogyna; the monotypic group White-browed Shortwing (Sumatran) Brachypteryx montana saturata becomes Sumatran Shortwing Brachypteryx saturata; the monotypic group White-browed Shortwing (Javan) Brachypteryx montana montana becomes Javan Shortwing Brachypteryx montana; and the monotypic group White-browed Shortwing (Flores) Brachypteryx montana floris becomes Flores Shortwing Brachypteryx floris.

References:

Eaton, J.A., B. van Balen, N.W. Brickle, and F.E. Rheindt. 2016. Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago: Greater Sundas and Wallacea. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 2. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Kyriazis, C.C., B. Alam, M. Wjodyla, S. Hackett, P. Hosner, H.L. Mays, Jr., L.R. Heaney, and S. Reddy. 2018. Colonization and diversification of the white-browed shortwing (Aves: Muscicapidae: Brachypteryx montana) in the Philippines. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 121: 121‚Äď131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2017.12.025

Shakya, S.B., M. Irham, M.L. Brady, T. Haryoko, Y.S. Fitriana, O. Johnson, M.A. Rahman, N.J. Robi, R.G. Moyle, D.M. Prawiradilaga, and F.H. Sheldon. 2020. Observations on the relationships of some Sundaic passerine taxa (Aves: Passeriformes) previously unavailable for molecular phylogenetic study. Journal of Ornithology 161: 651-664. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-020-01766-9

 

page 456, Japanese Robin Larvivora akahige

Japanese Robin is split into two species, based primarily on vocal differences (Zhao et al. 2016a): Japanese Robin Larvivora akahige and Izu Robin Larvivora tanensis.

Subspecies rishirensis, with range “Rishiri I. (off nw Hokkaido)”, is considered to be a junior synonym of nominate akahige (Morioka 1994), and is deleted; therefore Larvivora akahige becomes monotypic. Revise the range from “S Kuril and Sakhalin is. to n Japanese Arch.; > to s China” to “breeds on Sakhalin Island, the southern Kuril Islands, and Japan, including islands south of Kyushu; winters in southeastern China (from northwestern Fujian south to Guangdong and Guangxi)”.

References:

Morioka, H. 1994. Subspecific status of certain birds breeding in Hokkaido. Memoirs of National Science Museum (Tokyo) 27: 165-173.

Zhao, M., P. Alström, R. Hu, C. Zhao, Y. Hao, F. Lei, and Y. Qu. 2016b. Phylogenetic relationships, song and distribution of the endangered Rufous-headed Robin Larvivora ruficeps. Ibis 159: 204-216. https://doi.org/10.1111/ibi.12426

 

page 456, Ryukyu Robin Larvivora komadori

Ryukyu Robin is split into two species, based primarily on deep genetic divergence (as assessed by mitochondrial DNA: Saitoh et al. 2015), coupled with preliminary evidence of vocal differences (Boesman 2016t): Ryukyu Robin Larvivora komadori and Okinawa Robin Larvivora namiyei.

Subspecies subrufus, with range “S Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki, Iriomote and Yonaguni)”, is considered to be a junior synonym of nominate komadori (Vaurie 1955, Kawaji and Higuchi 1989), and is deleted; revise the range from “Ryukyu Is. (Tanega-Shima, Amami-O-Shima, Tokuno-Shima)” to “breeds Danjo Islands (off of southwestern Kyushu) and the northern Ryukyu Islands (Tanegashima S to Tokunoshima); winters south to the southern Ryukyu Islands (mainly Miyako, Ishigaki, Iriomote and Yonakuni)”.

References:

Boesman, P. 2016t. Notes on the vocalizations of Ryukyu Robin (Luscinia komadori). HBW Alive Ornithological Note 325 in Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow-on.100325

Kawaji, N., and H. Higuchi. 1989. Distribution and status of the Ryukyu Robin Erithacus komadori. Journal of the Yamashina Institute of Ornithology 21: 224‚Äď233. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jyio1952/21/2/21_2_224/_pdf Top of Form

Bottom of Form

 

Saitoh, T., N. Sugita, S. Someya, Y. Iwami, S. Kobayashi, H. Kamigaichi, A. Higuchi, S. Asai, Y. Yamamoto, and I. Nishiumi. 2015. DNA barcoding reveals 24 distinct lineages as cryptic bird species candidates in and around the Japanese Archipelago. Molecular Ecology Resources 15: 177-186. https://doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.12282

Vaurie, C. 1955a. Systematic notes on Palearctic birds. No. 14. Turdinae: the genera Erithacus, Luscinia, Tarsiger, Phoenicurus, Monticola, Erythropygia, and Oenanthe. American Museum Novitates number 1731. https://digitallibrary.amnh.org/bitstream/handle/2246/5401//v2/dspace/ingest/pdfSource/nov/N1731.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

 

page 461, White-crowned Forktail Enicurus leschenaulti

The monotypic group White-crowned Forktail (Bornean) Enicurus leschenaulti borneensis is recognized as a separate species, Bornean Forktail Enicurus borneensis, based on elevational segration from lowland White-crowned Forktail withd strong genetic divergence (Moyle et al. 2005, 2017), and vocal differences (Eaton et al. 2021).

The polytypic group White-crowned Forktail (White-crowned) Enicurus leschenaulti [frontalis Group] is partitioned into two new groups: White-crowned Forktail (Northern) Enicurus leschenaulti sinensis/indicus, with subspecies sinensis and indicus; and White-crowned Forktail (Malaysian) Enicurus leschenaulti frontalis/chaseni, with subspeies frontalis and chaseni.

References:

Eaton, J.A., B. van Balen, N.W. Brickle, and F.E. Rheindt. 2021. Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago: Greater Sundas and Wallacea. Second edition. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Moyle, R.G., M. Schilthuizen, M.A. Rahman, and F.H. Sheldon. 2005. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the white-crowned forktail Enicurus leschenaulti in Borneo. Journal of Avian Biology 36: 96-101.

Moyle, R.G., J.D. Manthey, P.A. Hosner, M. Rahman, M. Lakim, and F.H. Sheldon. 2017. A genome-wide assessment of stages of elevational parapatry in Bornean passerine birds reveals no introgression: implications for processes and patterns of speciation. PeerJ 5: e3335. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3335

 

page 401, Forest Rock-Thrush Monticola sharpei

Genetic investigations of Malagasy Monticola consistently reveal only very low levels of genetic divergence (Goodman and Weigt 2002, Outlaw et al. 2007, Zuccon and Ericson 2010, Cruaud et al 2011), but all are limited to mitochondrial DNA. Nonetheless we recognize the monotypic group Forest Rock-Thrush (Amber Mountain) Monticola sharpei erythronotus as a species, Amber Mountain Rock-Thrush Monticola erythronotus, based on its distinctive plumage (in both sexes) compared to other taxa of Forest Rock-Thrush (del Hoyo and Collar 2016).

References:

Cruaud, A., M.J. Raherilalao, E. Pasquet, and S.M. Goodman. 2011. Phylogeography and systematics of the Malagasy rock-thrushes (Muscicapidae, Monticola). Zoologica Scripta 40: 554‚Äď566. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-6409.2011.00497.x

Goodman, S.M., and L.A. Weigt. 2002. The generic and species relationships of the reputed endemic Malagasy genus Pseudocossyphus (Family Turdidae). Ostrich 73: 26‚Äď35. https://doi.org/10.2989/00306520209485348

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 2. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Outlaw, R.K., G. Voelker, and D.C. Outlaw. 2007. Molecular systematics and historical biogeography of the rock-thrushes (Muscicapidae: Monticola). Auk 124: 561‚Äď577. https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/124.2.561

Zuccon, D., and P.G.P. Ericson. 2010b. The Monticola rockthrushes: phylogeny and biogeography revisited. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 55: 901‚Äď910. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2010.01.009

 

page 463, Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe

We recognize the monotypic group Northern Wheatear (Black-throated) Oenanthe oenanthe seebohmi as a separate species, Atlas Wheatear Oenanthe seebohmi. Genetic divergence of Atlas Wheatear, as assessed by mitochondrial DNA, is very low (Aliabadian et al. 2007, Wang et al. 2020); nonetheless Atlas Wheatear differs significantly from the otherwise homogeneous appearance of Northern Wheatear throughout its extensive range, and there is some evidence of vocal differences (del Hoyo and Collar 2016, Shirihai and Svensson 2018).

References:

Aliabadian, M., M. Kaboli, R. Prodon, V. Nijman, and M. Vences. 2007. Phylogeny of Palaearctic wheatears (genus Oenanthe)‚ÄĒcongruence between morphometric and molecular data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42: 665‚Äď675. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2006.08.018

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 2. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Shirihai, H., and L. Svensson. 2018. Handbook of Western Palaearctic birds. Helm, London.

Wang, E., D. Zhang, M.S. Braun, A. Hotz-Wagenblatt, T. Pärt, D. Arlt, H. Schmaljohamm, F. Bairlein, F. Lei, and M. Wink. 2020. Can mitogenomes of the Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe) reconstruct its phylogeography and reveal the origin of migrant birds? Scientific Reports 10: 9290. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66287-0

 

page 464, Red-breasted Wheatear Oenanthe bottae

Each of the two monotypic groups is recognized as a separate species; therefore the group Red-breasted Wheatear (Buff-breasted) Oenanthe bottae bottae becomes Buff-breasted Wheatear Oenanthe bottae, and the group Red-breasted Wheatear (Rusty-breasted) Oenanthe bottae frenata becomes Rusty-breasted Wheatear Oenanthe frenata. Buff-breasted and Rusty-breasted wheatears are extremely similar to one another, but but the split nonetheless may be warranted as Buff-breasted is more different from Rusty-breasted than the latter is from another closely related African species, Heuglin’s Wheatear Oenanthe heuglini.

 

page 606, Red-headed Weaver Anaplectes rubriceps

The monotypic group Red-headed Weaver (Red) Anaplectes rubriceps jubaensis is recognized as a separate species, Red Weaver Anaplectes jubaensis, based on its very distinctive plumage (del Hoyo and Collar 2016; see also Roche 1966); although Red Weaver is very poorly known, there also are suggestions that it is more habitat restricted than is Red-headed Weaver (Musina et al. 2015).

References:

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 2. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Roche, J. 1966. Recherches ecologiques et systematiques sur les oiseaux de la Republique de Somalie (partie ex-italienne). Monitore Zoologico Italiano. Supplement 1: 44-79.

 

page 606, Black-necked Weaver Ploceus nigricollis

The monotypic group Black-necked Weaver (Olive-backed) Ploceus nigricollis brachypterus is recognized as a separate species, Olive-naped Weaver Ploceus brachypterus. The plumage and iris color of Olive-backed Weaver are strikingly different from those of Black-necked Weaver (del Hoyo and Collar 2016). The two apparently hybridize where their ranges abut, a contact zone that has not been studied in detail, but any hybrid zone appears to be quite narrow in comparison to the widespread distributions of each of the two species.

Reference:

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 2. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

page addition (2022), Ruvu Weaver Ploceus holoxanthus

We add a newly recognized species Ruvu Weaver Ploceus holoxanthus, with range “eastern Tanzania (the lower Wami River, the Ruvu River, Lake Tagalala, and the Rufiji River)”. Ruvu Weaver previously had been synonymised with African Golden-Weaver Ploceus subaureus, but consistent morphological differences (Turner and Kennedy 2019, Oschadleus et al. 2021) and genetic data (Fjelds√• et al. 2020) demonstrate that it is a separate species.

References:

 

page 607, Vieillot’s Weaver Ploceus nigerrimus

Each of the monotypic groups is recognized as a separate species: the group Vieillot’s Weaver (Chestnut-and-black) Ploceus nigerrimus castaneofuscus becomes Chestnut-and-black Weaver Ploceus castaneofuscus; and the group Vieillot’s Weaver (Black) Ploceus nigerrimus nigerrimus becomes Vieillot’s Black Weaver Ploceus nigerrimus. Plumages of the two species are quite distinct, in both sexes (del Hoyo and Collar 2016). The ranges of Chestnut-and-black Weaver and Vieillot’s Black Weaver abut, a contact zone that has not been studied in detail, but any hybrid zone, if present, apparently would be quite narrow in comparison to the widespread distributions of the two species.

Reference:

 

page 610, Red-collared Widowbird Euplectes ardens

Red-collared Widowbird is split into two species, based on consistent differences in plumage and tail length (of males), and on relatively deep levels of genetic divergence (De Silva et al. 2019). The polytypic group Red-collared Widowbird (Red-cowled) Euplectes ardens laticauda/suahelicus, with subspecies laticauda and suahelicus, becomes Red-cowled Widowbird Euplectes laticauda; and the monotypic group Red-collared Widowbird (Red-collared) Euplectes ardens ardens Euplectes ardens retains the names Red-collared Widowbird.

Reference:

 

page 363, Australasian Pipit Anthus novaeseelandiae

Each of the two polytypic groups is recognized as a separate species, based on differences in size, wing-tip structure and plumage (especially tail pattern), following (Schodde and Mason 1999). The group Australasian Pipit (Australian) Anthus novaeseelandiae [australis Group], with subspecies exiguus, rogersi, bilbali, australis, and bistriatus, becomes Australian Pipit Anthus australis; and the polytypic group New Zealand Pipit Anthus novaeseelandiae, with subspecies novaeseelandiae, chathamensis, aucklandicus, and steindachneri, becomes New Zealand Pipit Anthus novaeseelandiae.

Reference:

 

page 365, Short-billed Pipit Anthus furcatus

The two monotypic groups, Short-billed Pipit (Puna) Anthus furcatus brevirostris and Short-billed Pipit (Fork-tailed) Anthus furcatus furcatus, exhibit moderately deep levels of genetic divergence (van Els and Norambuena 2018) and notable differences in the song given during a flight display (van Els and Norambuena 2018, Pearman and Areta 2020). Therefore we recognize each group as a separate species, Puna Pipit Anthus brevirostris and Short-billed Pipit Anthus furcatus.

References:

Pearman, M., and J. I. Areta. 2020. Birds of Argentina and the south-west Atlantic. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

van Els, P., and H.V. Norambuena. 2018. A revision of species limits in Neotropical pipits Anthus based on multilocus genetic and vocal data. Ibis 160: 158-172. https://doi.org/10.1111/ibi.12511

 

page 666, Black-faced Bunting Emberiza spodocephala

The monotypic group Black-faced Bunting (personata) Emberiza spodocephala personata is recognized as a separate species, Masked Bunting Emberiza personata, based on plumage differences in both sexes (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) and levels of genetic divergence (as assessed by mitochondrial DNA: Weissensteiner 2013, Päckert et al. 2015).

References:

del Hoyo, J., and N.J. Collar. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world. Volume 2. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

Päckert, M., Y.-H. Sun, P. Struzenberger, O. Valchuk, D.T. Tietze, and J. Martens. 2015. Phylogenetic relationships of endemic bunting species (Aves, Passeriformes, Emberizidae, Emberiza) from the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Vertebrate Zoology 65: 135-150. https://www.senckenberg.de/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/13_vertebrate_zoology_65-1_paeckert_et_al_135-150.pdf

Weissensteiner, M. 2013. Morphological and genetical differences of two subspecies of the Masked Bunting Emberiza spodocephala in Far Eastern Russia. Master’s thesis, Universit√§t Graz, Graz, Austria. https://unipub.uni-graz.at/obvugrhs/download/pdf/232438?originalFilename=true

 

page 693, Eastern Meadowlark Sturnella magna

In accord with AOS-NACC (Chesser et al. 2022), Eastern Meadowlark is split into two species, based on genetic evidence that Eastern Meadowlark is paraphyletic with respect to Western Meadowlark Sturnella neglecta (Beam et al. 2021; see also Barker et al. 2008), differences in vocalizations (Beam et al. 2021), and morphological and ecological differences (Rohwer 1976). Therefore we recognize Chihuahuan Meadowlark Sturnella lilianae, with subspecies lilianae and auropectoralis. Note that Chihuahuan Meadowlark does not completely overlap with our previously recognized polytypic group Eastern Meadowlark (Chihuahuan) Sturnella magna [lilianae Group], which included subspecies saundersi (in addition to lilianae and auropectoralis).

Revise the range of aureopectoralis from “Mexico (Durango and Sinaloa to Michoac√°n, M√©xico and n Puebla)” to “western Mexico from southern Sinaloa, coastal Nayarit, and southern Durango across the Trans-Volcanic Belt east to the upper R√≠o Lerma, Estado de M√©xico; populations between M√©xico and the Sierra Madre Oriental, in Tlaxcala, Puebla, and adjacent areas, also may represent auropectoralis, but this requires confirmation”.

References:

Barker, F.K. A.J. Vandergon, and S.M. Lanyon. 2008. Assessment of species limits among yellow-breasted meadowlarks (Sturnella spp.) using mitochondrial and sex-linked markers. Auk 125: 869-879. https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2008.07148

Beam, J.K., E.R Funk, and S.A Taylor. 2021. Genomic and acoustic differences separate Lilian’s Meadowlark (Sturnella magna lilianae) from Eastern (S. magna) and Western (S. neglecta) meadowlarks. Ornithology 138: ukab004. https://doi.org/10.1093/ornithology/ukab004

Chesser, R.T., S.M. Billerman, K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, B.E. Hern√°ndez-Ba√Īos, R.A. Jim√©nez, A.W. Kratter, N.A. Mason, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2022. Sixty-third Supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Ornithology 139: ukac020. https://doi.org/10.1093/ornithology/ukac020

Rohwer, S. 1976. Specific distinctness and adaptive differences in southwestern meadowlarks. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, the University of Kansas 44.

 

page 643, Masked Yellowthroat Geothlypis aequinoctialis

Masked Yellowthroat is split into three species, based on plumage differences and deep genetic divergence (as assessed by mitochondrial NDA: Escalante et al. 2009): a monotypic Masked Yellowthroat Geothlypis aequinoctialis; a polytypic Black-lored Yellowthroat Geothlypis auricularis (including peruviana); and a monotypic Southern Yellowthroat Geothlypis velata. More comprehensive reviews of genetic divergence and geographic variation in vocalizations would be helpful, however.

In Black-lored Yellowthroat, resposition nominate auricularis to precede (rather than follow) subspecies peruviana.

Reference:

Escalante, P., L. M√°rquez-Valdelamar, P. de la Torre, J.P. Laclette, and J. Klicka. 2009. Evolutionary history of a prominent North American warbler clade: the Oporornis‚ÄďGeothlypis complex. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53: 668-678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2009.07.014

 

page 646, Three-striped Warbler Basileuterus tristriatus

The polytypic group Three-striped Warbler (Bolivian) Basileuterus tristriatus [punctipectus Group], with subspecies inconspicuus, punctipectus, and canens, is genetically (Gutiérrez-Pinto et al. 2012) and vocally (Donegan 2014) distinct, and is recognized as a separate species, Yungas Warbler Basileuterus punctipectus.

References:

Donegan, T.M. 2014. Geographical variation in morphology and voice of Three-striped Warbler Basileuterus tristriatus. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 134: 79-109.

https://boc-online.org/bulletins/downloads/BBOC1342-Donegan.pdf

Gutiérrez-Pinto, N., A.M. Cuervo, J. Miranda, J.L. Pérez-Emán, R.T. Brumfield, and C.D. Cadena. 2012. Non-monophyly and deep genetic differentiation across low-elevation barriers in a Neotropical montane bird (Basileuterus tristriatus; Aves: Parulidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 64: 156-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.03.011

 

pages 644-656, Golden-bellied Warbler Myiothlypis chrysogaster

Dramatic differences in song (Boesman 2016w) justify a split between two widely allopatric, monotypic groups; therefore the group Golden-bellied Warbler (Golden-bellied) Myiothlypis chrysogaster chrysogaster becomes Cuzco Warbler Myiothlypis chrysogaster; and the group Golden-bellied Warbler (Choco) Myiothlypis chrysogaster chlorophrys becomes Choco Warbler Myiothlypis chlorophrys.

Revise the range of Cuzco Warbler from “E slope of Andes of Peru (Hu√°nuco and Jun√≠n to Puno)” to “east slope of Andes of central and southern Peru (Hu√°nuco and extreme southwestern Loreto south to Puno) and western Bolivia (La Paz)”.

Reference:

Boesman, P. 2016w. Notes on the vocalizations of Golden-bellied Warbler (Basileuterus chrysogaster). HBW Alive Ornithological Note 377 In Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow-on.100377

 

page addition (2022), Inti Tanager Heliothraupis oneilli

In accord with AOS-SACC (Proposal 925), we recognize the recently described Inti Tanager Heliothraupis oneilli Lane, Aponte, Rheindt, Rosenberg, Schmitt, and Terrill 2021 (Lane et al. 2021), with range “Incompletely known; breeds in northern Bolivia (Machariapo Valley in La Paz); migratory, probably wintering in lower montane forests in southeastern Peru, where currently known from a few records in Cusco (Kos√Īipata Valley).”. Note that Heliothraupis Lane, Burns, Klicka, and Price-Waldman 2021 (Lane et al. 2021) also is a newly described genus. Insert Inti Tanager immediately following Gray-headed Tanager Eucometis penicillata.

Reference:

Lane, D.F., M.A. Aponte Justininao, R.S. Terrill, F.E. Rheindt, L.B. Klicka, G.H. Rosenberg, C.J. Schmitt, and K.J. Burns. 2021. A new genus and species of tanager (Passeriformes, Thraupidae) from the lower Yungas of western Bolivia and southern Peru. Ornithology 138: ukab059. https://doi.org/10.1093/ornithology/ukab059

 

 

SPECIES LOSSES (lumps and other deletions)

 

page 54, Dusky Scrubfowl Megapodius freycinet

page 54, Forsten’s Scrubfowl Megapodius forsteni

Forsten’s Megapode is closely similar to Dusky Megapode Megapodius freycinet in morphometrics, plumage, and vocalizations (Jones et al. 1995); the two also show only very shallow genetic divergence (Birks and Edwards 2002, Harris et al. 2014). Therefore Forsten’s Megapode is lumped into Dusky Megapode, although each of the former species is retained as a polytypic group: Dusky Megapode (Dusky) Megapodius freycinet [freycinet Group], containing the subspecies quoyii, freycinet, and oustaleti; and Dusky Megapode (Forsten’s) Megapodius freycinet forsteni/buruensis, containing the subspecies forsteni and buruensis. Note the change in the English group name from ‘scrubfowl’ to ‘megapode’: given that ‘megapode’ is the commonly accepted group name for members of Megapodiidae, we follow Gill and Wright (2006) in adopting this name for all species of Megapodius.

Subspecies buruensis is repositioned to precede, rather than to follow, subspecies forsteni.

References:

Birks, S.M., and S.V. Edwards. 2002. A phylogeny of the megapodes (Aves: Megapodiidae) based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23: 408-421. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1055-7903(02)00002-7

Harris, R.B., S.M. Birks, and A.D. Leaché. 2014. Incubator birds: biogeographical origins and evolution of underground nesting in megapodes (Galliformes: Megapodiidae). Journal of Biogeography 41: 2045-2056. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12357

Jones, D.N., R.W.R.J. Dekker, and C.E. Roselaar. 1995. The megapodes Megapodiidae. Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford, United Kingdom.

 

page 67, Chestnut-naped Francolin Pternistis castaneicollis

page 67, Black-fronted Francolin Pternistis atrifrons

The rare and poorly known Black-fronted Francolin Pternistis atrifrons is lumped with Chestnut-naped Francolin Pternistis castaneicollis, due to low levels of phenotypic, genetic, and vocal divergence (T√∂pfer et al. 2014). We now recognize each of the two former species as monotypic groups: Chestnut-naped Spurfowl (Northern) Pternistis castaneicollis castaneicollis, and Chestnut-naped Spurfowl (Black-fronted) Pternistis castaneicollis atrifrons (note the change in the English group name, from ‘francolin’ to ‘spurfowl’).

Reference:

Töpfer, T., L. Podsiadlowski, and K. Gedeon. 2014. Rediscovery of the Black-fronted Francolin Pternistis (castaneicollis) atrifrons (CONOVER, 1930) (Aves: Galliformes: Phasianidae) with notes on biology, taxonomy and conservation. Vertebrate Zoology 64: 261-271. https://www.senckenberg.de/de/wissenschaft/publikationen/wissenschaftliche-zeitschriften/vertebrate-zoology/archiv/2014-vertebrate-zoology/

 

page 112, Pink Pigeon Nesoenas mayeri

addition (2019), Reunion Pigeon Nesoenas duboisi

The only specimen documentation of Reunion Pigeon is a single subfossil humerus, the measurements of which are within the range of, or only slightly outside the range of, Pink Pigeon (Mourer-Chauviré et al. 1999). Therefore we provisionally reclassify duboisi as a subspecies of Pink Pigeon.

Reference:

Mourer-Chauviré, C., R. Bour, R. Sonia, and F. Moutou. 1999. The avifauna of Réunion Island (Mascarene Islands) at the time of the arrival of the first Europeans. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 89: 1-38. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/58077348

 

page 182, Black-shouldered Nightjar Caprimulgus nigriscapularis

page 182, Fiery-necked Nightjar Caprimulgus pectoralis

Limited genetic data suggest that Fiery-necked Nightjar is sister to Montane Nightjar Caprimulgus poliocephalus, not to Black-shouldered Nightjar (Han et al. 2010). Nonetheless, Black-shouldered Nightjar is lumped into Fiery-necked Nightjar due to complete overlap in vocalizations (Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire 1993) and morphometrics (Jackson 2013), and minimal plumage differences (Louette 1990).

References:

Dowsett, R.J., and F. Dowsett‚ÄźLemaire. 1993. A contribution to the distribution and taxonomy of Afrotropical and Malagasy birds. Tauraco Research Report 5. Tauraco Press, Li√®ge,

Belgium.

Han, K.-L., M.B. Robbins, and M.J. Braun. 2010. A multi-gene estimate of phylogeny in the nightjars and nighthawks (Caprimulgidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution

55:443-453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2010.01.023

Jackson, H.D. 2013. The taxonomic status of the Black-shouldered Nightjar Caprimulgus

nigriscapularis Reichenow, 1893. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 133: 116‚Äź

  1. https://boc-online.org/bulletins/downloads/BBOC1332-Jackson.pdf

Louette, M. 1990. The nightjars of Za√Įre. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 110: 71‚Äź77. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/40027240

 

page 182, Abyssinian Nightjar Caprimulgus poliocephalus

page 182, Rwenzori Nightjar Caprimulgus ruwenzorii

Rwenzori Nightjar does not merit recognition as a species, based on vocal similarities (Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire 1993) to Abyssinian Nightjar, and the absence of significant plumage or morphometric differences between the two (Louette 1990, Jackson 2014). The combined species becomes known as Montane Nightjar Caprimulgus poliocephalus.

References:

Dowsett, R. J., and F. Dowsett‚ÄźLemaire (1993) A contribution to the distribution and taxonomy of Afrotropical and Malagasy birds. Tauraco Research Report 5. Tauraco Press, Li√®ge, Belgium.

Jackson, H.D. (2014) The taxonomic status of Rwenzori Nightjar Caprimulgus ruwenzorii Ogilvie-Grant, 1909, and Benguela Nightjar C. koesteri Neumann, 1931. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 134: 62‚Äź69. https://boc-online.org/bulletins/downloads/BBOC1341-Jackson.pdf

Louette, M. (1990) The nightjars of Za√Įre. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 110: 71‚Äź77. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/40027240

 

page 176, Archbold’s Owlet-nightjar Aegotheles archboldi

page 176, Mountain Owlet-nightjar Aegotheles albertisi

Monotypic Archbold’s Owlet-nightjar, with range “Central New Guinea (Wissel Lakes region)”, had been split from Mountain Owlet-nightjar (Cleere 2010, Dickinson and Remsen 2013), based on genetic evidence (Dumbacher et al. 2003). As Dumbacher et al. themselves note, however, the genetic divergence between all taxa in this group is shallow and poorly resolved. Furthermore, plumages of all taxa in this group are highly variable (Beehler and Pratt 2016). Therefore we follow Beehler and Pratt in recognizing only a single widespread species, Mountain Owlet-nightjar Aegotheles albertisi. Archbold’s Owlet-nightjar Aegotheles archboldi is deleted, as are the three previously recognized subspecies of Mountain Owlet-nightar: nominate albertisi, with range “Arfak Mountains (nw New Guinea)”; subspecies wondiwoi, with range “Wandammen Peninsula (New Guinea)”; and subspecies salvadorii, with range “Mountains of New Guinea (Weyland Mts. to se New Guinea)”. Mountain Owlet-nightjar thus becomes monotypic; revise the range of the species to “mountains of New Guinea, from the Bird’s Head, the Wandammen Mountains, and the Foja Mountains through central New Guinea to the Huon and Southeastern Peninsulas”.

References:

Beehler, B.M., and T.K. Pratt. 2016. Birds of New Guinea: distribution, taxonomy, and systematics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Cleere, N. 2010. Nightjars: potoos, frogmouths, Oilbird and owlet-nightjars of the world. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Dickinson, E.C., and J.V. Remsen, Jr. (editors). 2013. The Howard & Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world. Fourth edition. Volume 1. Aves Press, Eastbourne, United Kingdom.

Dumbacher, J.P., T.K. Pratt, and R.C. Fleishcher. 2003. Phylogeny of the owlet-nightjars (Aves: Aegothelidae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 29: 540‚Äď549. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00135-0

 

page 194, Wedge-tailed Sabrewing Pampa curvipennis

page 194, Long-tailed Sabrewing Pampa excellens

In accord with AOS-NACC, Long-tailed Sabrewing is lumped into Wedge-tailed Sabrewing (Chesser et al. 2022), because of evidence of gene flow between them, and because their songs are similar and Wedge-tailed Sabrewing responds readily to songs of Long-tailed Sabrewing (Gonz√°lez et al. 2011, Cruz-Yepez et al. 2020). Long-tailed now is recognized, however, as a new monotypic group, Wedge-tailed Sabrewing (Long-tailed) Pampa curvipennis excellens.

References:

Chesser, R.T., S.M. Billerman, K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, B.E. Hern√°ndez-Ba√Īos, R.A. Jim√©nez, A.W. Kratter, N.A. Mason, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2022. Sixty-third Supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American birds. Ornithology 139: ukac020. https://doi.org/10.1093/ornithology/ukac020

Cruz-Yepez, N., C. Gonz√°lez, and J.F. Ornelas. 2020. Vocal recognition suggests premating isolation between lineages of a lekking hummingbird. Behavioral Ecology 31: 1046-1053. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/araa050

González, C., J.F. Ornelas, and C. Gutiérrez-Rodríguez. 2011. Selection and geographic isolation influence hummingbird speciation: genetic, acoustic and morphological divergence in the wedge-tailed sabrewing (Campylopterus curvipennis). BMC Evolutionary Biology 11:38. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-11-38

 

page 40, Red-chested Goshawk Accipiter toussenelii

page 40, African Goshawk Accipiter tachiro

Red-chested Goshawk is lumped into African Goshawk, based on vocal and behavioral similarities (Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire 1991, 1993). Change the names of the monotypic group Red-chested Goshawk (Banded) Accipiter toussenelii macroscelides to African Goshawk (Banded) Accipiter tachiro macroscelides; change the names of the polytypic group Red-chested Goshawk (Red-chested) Accipiter toussenelii toussenelii/canescens to African Goshawk (Red-chested) Accipiter tachiro toussenelii/canescens; and change the names of the monotypic group Red-chested Goshawk (Bioko) Accipiter toussenelii lopezi to African Goshawk (Bioko) Accipiter tachiro lopezi.

References:

Dowsett, R.J., and F. Dowsett-Lemaire. 1991. Flora and fauna of the Kouilou Basin, Congo, and their exploitation. Tauraco Research Report 4. Tauraco Press, Liège, Belgium.

Dowsett, R.J., and F. Dowsett‚ÄźLemaire. 1993. A contribution to the distribution and taxonomy of Afrotropical and Malagasy birds. Tauraco Research Report 5. Tauraco Press, Li√®ge,

Belgium.

 

page 46, Common Buzzard Buteo buteo

page 46, Cape Verde Buzzard Buteo bannermani

The monotypic Cape Verde Buzzard is lumped into Common Buzzard. Morphological differences of Cape Verde Buzzard from Common Buzzard are negligible (Kruckenhauser et al. 2004), and genetic data are limited and contradictory (Clouet and Wink 2000, Kruckenhauser et al. 2004); classification of bannermani as a subspecies of Common Buzzard is more consistent with the available information. We coninue to recognize bannermani as a monotypic group; position Common Buzzard (Cape Verde) Buteo buteo bannermani immediately following

Common Buzzard (Canary Is.) Buteo buteo insularum.

References:

Clouet, M., and M. Wink. 2000. The buzzards of Cape Verde Buteo (buteo) bannermani and Socotra Buteo (Buteo) ssp.: first results of a genetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome b gene. Alauda 68: 55-58.

Kruckenhauser, L., E. Haring, W. Pinsker, M.J. Riesing, H. Winkler, M. Wink, and A. Gamauf. 2004. Genetic vs. morphological differentiation of Old World buzzards (genus Buteo, Accipitridae). Zoologica Scripta 33: 197-211. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0300-3256.2004.00147.x

 

page 47, Augur Buzzard Buteo augur

page 47, Archer’s Buzzard Buteo archeri

The monotypic Archer’s Buzzard is lumped into Augur Buzzard. Archer’s Buzzard is not known to be genetically distinct (the one putative specimen of archeri sampled in Riesing et al. 2003 may have come from outside its known geographic range). Furthermore, the characters of archeri within its core range are less stable than often described (Clark 1996), and a specimen matching this phenotype has been collected in southern Africa (Clark 2003). Therefore Archer’s Buzzard is best included in Augur Buzzard as a subspecies. We continue to recognize archeri as a monotypic group, Augur Buzzard (Archer’s) Buteo augur archeri.

References:

Clark, W. S. 1996. The validity of Archer’s Buzzard as a species. Journal of African Raptor Biology 11: 11-13.

Clark, W. S. 2003. Specimen of rufous-morph Augur Buzzard Buteo augur from Zimbabwe. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 10: 107-108. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/51747496

Riesing, M.J., L. Kruckenhauser, A. Gamauf, and E. Haring. 2003. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Buteo (Aves: Accipitridae) based on mitochondrial marker sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 27: 328-342. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00450-5

 

page 164, Madagascar Scops-Owl Otus rutilus

page 164, Torotoroka Scops-Owl Otus madagascariensis

Rasmussen et al. (2000) documented subtle vocal and plumage differences between western madagascariensis and eastern rutilus, but a subsequent genetic analysis (based solely on mtDNA) recovered only very low levels of genetic divergence between these taxa (Fuchs et al. 2007); therefore we lump Torotoroka Scops-Owl into Madagascar Scops-Owl. We continue to recognize both as separate monotypic groups: Madagascar Scops-Owl (Rainforest) Otus rutilus rutilus and Madagascar Scops-Owl (Torotoroka) Otus rutilus madagascariensis. Additional genetic data and a more geographically comprehensive analysis of vocalizations are required to better understand the relationship between these taxa.

References:

Fuchs, J., J.-M. Pons, E. Pasquet, M.J. Raherilalao, and S.M. Goodman. 2007b. Geographical structure of genetic variation in the Malagasy Scops-Owl inferred from mitochondrial sequence data. Condor 109: 408-418. https://doi.org/10.1093/condor/109.2.408

Rasmussen, P.C., T.S. Schulenberg, A.F.A Hawkins, and V. Raminoarisoa. 2000. Geographic variation in the Malagasy Scops Owl (Otus rutilus auct.), and the existence of an unrecognized species. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 120: 75-102. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/40025648

 

page 167, Fraser’s Eagle-Owl Bubo poensis

page 167, Usambara Eagle-Owl Bubo vosseleri

Usambara Eagle-Owl is lumped into Fraser’s Eagle-Owl because the vocalizations of the two are not appreciably different (Dowsett-Lemaire 2006), and because Usambara Eagle-Owl responds to audio playback of the Fraser’s Eagle-Owl (Hunter et al. 1998). We continue to recognize each as monotypic groups: Fraser’s Eagle-Owl (Western) Ketupa poensis poensis, and Fraser’s Eagle-Owl (Usambara) Ketupa poensis vosseleri. Note that this species is transferred to Ketupa. The genus Ketupa is embedded within the traditional Bubo, while Scotopelia may be embedded with the Ketupa group of species, or perhaps is sister to this clade (Salter et al. 2020, Wink and Sauer-G√ľrth 2021). Provisionally we recognize three genera: Bubo (Old and New World); Ketupa (tropical Afro-Asian, including some species formerly included in Bubo); and Scotopelia. Note that Ketupa is expanded to include eight species previously classified in Bubo; four of these (poensis, lacteus, nipalensis, and sumatranus) are confirmed by genetic data as belonging to the Ketupa clade, while the remaining four (shelleyi, coromandus, leucostictus, and philippinensis) are inferred to belong to Ketupa based on morphological similarities to species of the first group.

The sequence of species of Ketupa is revised.

References:

Dowsett-Lemaire, F. 2006. Ecology, voice and territorial competition of two forest eagle owls, Fraser’s Eagle Owl Bubo poensis and Akun Eagle Owl B. leucostictus. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 13: 147-156. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/51751737

Hunter, N., C. Carter, and E. Mlungu. 1998. A new location for the Usambara Eagle Owl Bubo vosseleri. Scopus 20: 52‚Äź53. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/45651780

Salter, J.F., C.H. Oliveros, P.A. Hosner, J.D. Manthey, M.B. Robbins, R.G. Moyle, R.T. Brumfield, and B.C. Faircloth. 2020. Extensive paraphyly in the typical owl family (Strigidae). Auk 137: ukz070. https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/ukz070

Wink, M., and H. Sauer-G√ľrth. 2021. Molecular taxonomy and systematics of owls (Strigiformes) – an update. AIRO 29: 487-500.

 

page 172, African Barred Owlet Glaucidium capense

page 172, Chestnut Owlet Glaucidium castaneum

There is no basis for maintaining Chestnut Owlet as a separate species (Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire 1993, Fishpool in press), and so this species is lumped into African Barred Owlet. Change the names of monotypic group Chestnut Owlet (Etchecopar’s) Glaucidium castaneum etchecopari to African Barred Owlet (Etchecopar’s) Glaucidium capense etchecopari, and change the names of the monotypic group Chestnut Owlet (Chestnut) Glaucidium castaneum castaneum to African Barred Owlet (Chestnut) Glaucidium capense castaneum.

References:

Dowsett, R.J., and F. Dowsett‚ÄźLemaire. 1993. A contribution to the distribution and taxonomy of Afrotropical and Malagasy birds. Tauraco Research Report 5. Tauraco Press, Li√®ge, Belgium.

Fishpool, L. D. C. In press. On the distribution, specimens and status of Chestnut Owlet

Glaucidium (capense) castaneum and Albertine Owlet G. (c.) albertinum. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club.

 

page 169, Ural Owl Strix uralensis

page 169, Pere David’s Owl Strix davidi

Vocalizations and plumage seem to show broad overlap between Ural and Pere David’s owls (Scherzinger 2004, Scherzinger et al. 2014), suggesting that Pere David’s Owl is best considered to be a subspecies of Ural Owl. We continue to recognize davidi as a monotypic group, Ural Owl (Pere David’s) Strix uralensis davidi.

References:

Scherzinger, W. 2004. Remarks on Sichuan Wood Owl Strix uralensis davidi from observations in south-west China. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 125: 275-286. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/40056584

Scherzinger, W., Y. Fang, Y.-H. Sun, and S. Klaus. 2014. Revised description of Pere David’s Owl Strix davidi based on field observations in Central China. Ornithologischer Anzeiger 53: 54-93.

 

page 217, North Moluccan Dwarf-Kingfisher Ceyx uropygialis

page 217, Seram Dwarf-Kingfisher Ceyx lepidus

North Moluccan Dwarf-Kingfisher Ceyx uropygialis is lumped into Seram Dwarf-Kingfisher Ceyx lepidus. Despite a relatively deep genetic divergence between them (Andersen et al. 2013, 2018), these two are sister taxa, and are very similar to one another. We continue to recognize each as separate monotypic groups, Moluccan Dwarf-Kingfisher (North Moluccan) Ceyx lepidus uropygialis and Moluccan Dwarf-Kingfisher (Seram) Ceyx lepidus (note the change in the English name of Ceyx lepidus).

References:

Andersen, M.J., C.H. Oliveros, C.E. Filardi, and R.G. Moyle. 2013. Phylogeography of the Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher Ceyx lepidus (Aves: Alcedinidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Auk 130: 118-131. https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2012.12102

Andersen, M.J., J.M. McCullough, W.M. Mauck III, B.T. Smith, and R.G. Moyle. 2018. A phylogeny of kingfishers reveals an Indomalayan origin and elevated rates of diversification on oceanic islands. Journal of Biogeography 45: 269‚Äď281. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13139

 

page 217, Bougainville Dwarf-Kingfisher Ceyx pallidus

page 217, North Solomons Dwarf-Kingfisher Ceyx meeki

Bougainville Dwarf-Kingfisher Ceyx pallidus is lumped into North Solomons Dwarf-Kingfisher Ceyx meeki. These two kingfishers are sister taxa (Andersen et al. 2018), with plumages that are almost identical. We continue to recognize each as separate monotypic groups, North Solomons Dwarf-Kingfisher (Bougainville) Ceyx meeki pallidus and North Solomons Dwarf-Kingfisher (North Solomons) Ceyx meeki meeki.

Reference:

Andersen, M.J., J.M. McCullough, W.M. Mauck III, B.T. Smith, and R.G. Moyle. 2018. A phylogeny of kingfishers reveals an Indomalayan origin and elevated rates of diversification on oceanic islands. Journal of Biogeography 45: 269‚Äď281. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13139

 

page 217, Malaita Dwarf-Kingfisher Ceyx malaitae

page 217, Guadalcanal Dwarf-Kingfisher Ceyx nigromaxilla

Malaita Dwarf-Kingfisher Ceyx malaitae is lumped into Guadalcanal Dwarf-Kingfisher Ceyx nigromaxilla. These two kingfishers are very similar to one another. Some genetic data suggests that they are not monophyletic (Andersen et al. 2018), but support for this topology is weak and requires confirmation. We continue to recognize each as separate monotypic groups, Guadalcanal Dwarf-Kingfisher (Malaita) Ceyx nigromaxilla malaitae and Guadalcanal Dwarf-Kingfisher (Guadalcanal) Ceyx nigromaxilla nigromaxilla.

Reference:

Andersen, M.J., J.M. McCullough, W.M. Mauck III, B.T. Smith, and R.G. Moyle. 2018. A phylogeny of kingfishers reveals an Indomalayan origin and elevated rates of diversification on oceanic islands. Journal of Biogeography 45: 269‚Äď281. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13139

 

page 221, Niau Kingfisher Todiramphus gertrudae

page 221, Mangareva Kingfisher Todiramphus gambieri

Niau Kingfisher Todiramphus gertrudae is lumped into Mangareva Kingfisher Todiramphus gambieri. These two taxa are restricted to islands that are over 1400 km apart, but they seem to differ only in minor plumage characters, even though there is no evidence for extinct intervening populations in the Tuamotus (Holyoak and Thibault 1977, Thibault and Cibois 2017). We continue to recognize each taxon as a separate monotypic group: Tuamotu Kingfisher (Niau) Todiramphus gambieri gertrudae, and Tuamotu Kingfisher (Mangareva) Todiramphus gambieri gambieri. Note the change in the English name for Todiramphus gambieri.

References:

Holyoak, D.T., and J.-C. Thibault. 1977. Halcyon gambieri gambieri Oustalet, an extinct kingfisher from Mangareva, South Pacific Ocean. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists‚Äô Club 97: 21‚Äď23.

Thibault, J.-C. & Cibois, A. (2017) Birds of Eastern Polynesia: a Biogeographic Atlas. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.

 

page 244, Thick-billed Honeyguide Indicator conirostris

page 244, Lesser Honeyguide Indicator minor

Thick-billed Honeyguide Indicator conirostris is lumped into Lesser Honeyguide Indicator minor. Recognition of two species is supported by reports of sympatry, with habitat differences, in Angola (Ripley and Heinrich 1966) and Uganda (Friedmann 1969). There still is no incontrovertible evidence of sympatric breeding, however; putative habitat differences have been questioned; intermediates are known from multiple localities; and vocalizations appear to be indistinguishable (Short and Horne 1985). We continue to recognize each of the two former species as polytypic groups, Lesser Honeyguide (Thick-billed) Indicator minor conirostris/ussheri, with subspecies ussheri and conirostris; and Lesser Honeyguide (Lesser) Indicator minor [minor Group], with subspecies senegalensis, riggenbachi, diadematus, damarensis, teitensis, and minor.

References:

Friedmann, H. 1969. Phenotypic potential and speciation in Indicator and Prodotiscus. Ostrich 40 S1: 21‚Äď26. https://doi.org/10.1080/00306525.1969.9639103

Ripley, S.D., and G.H. Heinrich. 1966. Additions to the avifauna of northern Angola II. Postilla number 95. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/12070410

Short, L.L., and J.F.M. Horne. 1985. Behavioral notes on the nest-parasitic Afrotropical honeyguides (Aves: Indicatoridae). American Museum Novitates number 2825. https://digitallibrary.amnh.org/bitstream/handle/2246/5229//v2/dspace/ingest/pdfSource/nov/N2825.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

 

page 322, White-crested Tyrannulet Serpophaga subcristata

page 322, White-bellied Tyrannulet Serpophaga munda

White-bellied Tyrannulet is lumped into White-crested Tyrannulet. Genetic divergence between the two groups is rather shallow (Rheindt et al. 2008, Harvey et al. 2020), and they exhibit little or no variation in vocalizations (Straneck 1993, Krabbe 2015, Pearman and Areta 2021). We continue to recognize each of the former species as separate groups: White-crested Tyrannulet (Sulphur-bellied) Serpophaga subcristata subcristata/straminea, with subspecies subcristata and straminea; and a monotypic goup White-crested Tyrannulet (White-bellied) Serpophaga subcristata munda.

References:

Harvey, M.G., G.A. Bravo, S. Claramunt, A.M. Cuervo, G.E. Derryberry, J. Battilana, G.F. Seeholzer, J.S. McKay, B.C. O’Meara, B.C. Faircloth, S.V. Edwards, J. P√©rez-Em√°n, R.G. Moyle, F.H. Sheldon, A. Aleixo, B.T. Smith, R.T. Chesser, L.F. Silveira, J. Cracraft, R.T. Brumfield, and E.P. Derryberry. 2020. The evolution of a tropical biodiversity hotspot. Science 370: 1343-1348. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaz6970

Krabbe, N. 2015. Serpophaga [subcristata] vocalizations. https://xeno-canto.org/article/189

Pearman, M., and J. I. Areta. 2020. Birds of Argentina and the south-west Atlantic. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Rheindt, F.E., J.A. Norman, and L. Christidis. 2008b. Phylogenetic relationships of tyrant-flycatchers (Aves: Tyrannidae), with an emphasis on the elaeniine assemblage. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46: 88‚Äď101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2007.09.011¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Straneck, R.J. 1993. Aportes para la unificaci√≥n de Serpophaga subcristata y Serpophaga munda, y a la revalidaci√≥n de Serpophaga griseiceps (Aves: Tyrannidae). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” Zoologia 16: 51-63.

 

page 556, Brown Honeyeater Lichmera indistincta

page 557, Indonesian Honeyeater Lichmera limbata

The monotypic Indonesian Honeyeater is considered to be a subspecies of Brown Honeyeater, following Mees (2006) and Dickinson and Christidis (2014). Reposition subspecies limbata to immediately follow the species heading for Brown Honeyeater.

References:

 

page 518, Tropical Scrubwren Sericornis beccarii

page 518, Perplexing Scrubwren Sericornis virgatus

page 518, Large Scrubwren Sericornis nouhuysi

Following Beehler and Pratt (2016) WGAC, Perplexing Scrubwren is lumped into Large Scrubwren. Both taxa of Perplexing Scrubwren, nominate virgatus and jobiensis, are considered to be populations that represent hybrid swarms between Large Scrubwren and Tropical Scrubwren, and so perhaps are not valid taxa. These populations are more similar to Large Scrubwren and so now are classified under that species.

In Tropical Scrubwren, reposition nominate beccarii to follow subspecies weylandi. Reposition subspecies cyclopum to follow subspecies weylandi and nominate beccarii.

Several subspecies previously classified under Tropical Scrubwren (“a lowland and foothill species”) are transferred to Large Scrubwren (“a lower-montane and montane species”), following Beehler and Pratt (2016):

Subspecies Sericornis beccarii imitator of Tropical Scrubwren, with range “NE New Guinea (Arfak Mountains)”, is considered to be a junior synonym of Sericornis nouhuysi cantans (Beehler and Pratt 2016), and is deleted. Revise the range of cantans from “NW New Guinea (Vogelkop Mountains)” to “northwestern New Guinea (mountains of Bird’s Head Peninsula; populations of Fakfak and Kumawa mountains probably also this subspecies)”.

With the lump of Perplexing Scrubwren into Large Scrubwren, position subspecies jobiensis immediately following subspecies cantans, and change the scientific name from Sericornis virgatus jobiensis to Sericornis nouhuysi jobiensis.

Revise the range of nominate nouhuysi from “New Guinea (Weyland, Nassau and Snow mountains)” to “highlands of western New Guinea (Weyland, Nassau, and Oranje mountains)”.

Subspecies Sericornis beccarii idenburgi (Tropical Scrubwren) is transferred to Large Scrubwren (Beehler and Pratt 2016). Position idenburgi immediately following nominate nouhuysi. Revise the range from “New Guinea (Gauttier Mts. and slopes above Idenburg River)” to “northern New Guinea (northeastern portion of the Western Ranges, on slopes above the Taritatu River); this subspecies may represent a population that is composed of intergrades between Tropical and Large scrubwrens, rather than a valid taxon”.

Subspecies boreonesioticus, previously classified under Tropical Scrubwren, is transferred to Large Scrubwren. Position boreonesioticus following nominate nouhuysi and subspecies idenburgi, and change the scientific name from Sericornis beccarii boreonesioticus to Sericornis nouhuysi boreonesioticus. Revise the range from “N New Guinea (Toricelli Mountains)” to “northern New Guinea (Toricelli Mountains); possibly a junior synonym of virgatus“.

With the lump of Perplexing Scrubwren into Large Scrubwren, position subspecies virgatus following nominate nouhuysi and subspecies idenburgi and boreonesioticus, and change the scientific name from Sericornis virgatus virgatus to Sericornis nouhuysi virgatus. Revise the range of virgatus from “Vogelkop Mts. and n slopes of Sepik-Ramu river drainage” to “highlands of eastern New Guinea (upper Sepik-Ramu river drainages)”.

Subspecies pontifex, previously classified under Tropical Scrubwren, is transferred to Large Scrubwren. Position pontifex following nominate nouhuysi and subspecies idenburgi, boreonesioticus, and virgatus, and change the scientific name from Sericornis beccarii pontifex to Sericornis nouhuysi pontifex. Revise the range from “N New Guinea (Sepik Mountains)” to “north central New Guinea (Sepik Mountains)”.

Revise the range of subspecies stresemanni from “Central Highlands of New Guinea” to “central highlands of New Guinea; possibly a junior synonym of subspecies pontifex“.

Reposition subspecies adelberti to follow subspecies stresemanni.

Reference:

 

page addition (2011), Himalayan Shrike-Babbler Pteruthius ripleyi

page 506, Blyth’s Shrike-Babbler Pteruthius aeralatus

page 506, Dalat Shrike-Babbler Pteruthius annamensis

Genetic divergence (as measured by mitochondrial DNA; Reddy 2008) between these species is low, and plumage differences between most of these also are few and subtle (Rheindt and Eaton 2009). Separation into three species has been justified on the basis of vocal differences (Rheindt and Eaton 2009), but a more recent analysis suggests that vocalizations may be less consistently different than previously thought (Boesman 2016n). Therefore all three species are lumped as White-browed Shrike-Babbler Pteruthius aeralatus. We continue to recognize each of the three previously recognized species as groups: monotypic groups White-browed Shrike-Babbler (Himalayan) Pteruthius aeralatus ripleyi and White-browed Shrike-Babbler (Dalat) Pteruthius aeralatus annamensis, and a polytypic group White-browed Shrike-Babbler (Blyth’s) Pteruthius aeralatus [aeralatus Group], with subspecies aeralatus, schauenseei, cameranoi, and robinsoni. The former Blyth’s Shrike-Babbler also included two additional monotypic groups: change the English name of the group Pteruthius aeralatus validirostris from Blyth’s Shrike-Babbler (Chestnut-winged) to White-browed Shrike-Babbler (Chestnut-winged), and of the group Pteruthius aeralatus ricketti from Blyth’s Shrike-Babbler (Gray-breasted) to White-browed Shrike-Babbler (Gray-breasted).

References:

 

page 351, Spike-heeled Lark Chersomanes albofasciata

page 351, Beesley’s Lark Chersomanes beesleyi

Beesley’s Lark is lumped into Spike-heeled Lark, although we continue to recognize it as a monotypic group, Spike-heeled Lark (Beesley’s) Chersomanes albofasciata beesleyi. Many of the features originally promoted to recognize beesleyi as a full species have since been found to be clinal or inconsistent (Donald and Collar 2011; but see Miller et al. 2021). Genetic divergence is deep but based only on mitochondrial DNA (Alstr√∂m et al. 2013, Stervander et al. 2020) and furthermore no sampling has been done of the recently discovered population in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which lies between beesleyi and the nearest populations of Spike-heeled Lark.

References:

 

page 351, Karoo Long-billed Lark Certhilauda subcoronata

page 351, Benguela Lark Certhilauda benguelensis

Genetic data indicates that there is fairly deep genetic divergence between Karoo Long-billed Lark and Benguela Lark (Ryan and Bloomer 1999, Alström et al. 2013, but the existence of a narrow gap in distribution between the groups has been called into question (Donald and Alström, in preparation), and there is uncertainty regarding the species to which damarensis should be assigned (Ryan and Bloomer 1999). Therefore Benguela Lark is lumped into Karoo Long-billed Lark, pending a more complete understanding of the relationships of taxa in this complex. Each of the two former species continues to be recognized as separate polytypic groups: Karoo Long-billed Lark (Karoo) Certhilauda subcoronata [subcoronata Group], with subspecies bradshawi, damarensis, subcoronata, and gilli; and Karoo Long-billed Lark (Benguela) Certhilauda subcoronata benguelensis/kaokoensis, with subspecies benguelensis and kaokoensis.

References:

 

page 351, Cape Lark Certhilauda curvirostris

page 351, Agulhas Lark Certhilauda brevirostris

Genetic divergence between Cape Lark and Agulhas Lark is rather shallow (and indeed, both species also are very little divergent from Eastern Long-billed Lark Certhilauda semitorquata) (Alström et al. 2013). With the caveat that there are few available audio recordings, vocalizations of the two also seem to be essentially identical (Boesman 2016o). Therefore Agulhas Lark is lumped into Cape Lark. Each of the former species continues to be recognized as a separate group: a polytypic group Cape Lark (Cape) Certhilauda curvirostris curvirostris/falcirostris, with subspecies falcirostris and curvirostris; and a monotypic group Cape Lark (Agulhas) Certhilauda curvirostris brevirostris.

References:

 

page 350, Fawn-colored Lark Calendulauda africanoides

page 350, Foxy Lark Calendulauda alopex

Genetic divergence between Fawn-colored Lark and Foxy Lark is very shallow, at least as assessed by mitochondrial DNA (Alström et al. 2013), and differences in plumage and morphology also are slight (Donald and Alström, in preparation). Therefore Foxy Lark is lumped into Fawn-colored Lark. We continue to recognize each of the former species as separate polytypic groups: Fawn-colored Lark (Fawn-colored) Calendulauda africanoides [africanoides Group], with subspecies trapnelli, makarikari, harei, sarwensis, africanoides, and vincenti; and Fawn-colored Lark (Foxy) Calendulauda africanoides alopex/intercedens, with subspecies alopex and intercedens.

Reference:

 

page 348, Australasian Bushlark Mirafra javanica

page 348, Singing Bushlark Mirafra cantillans

As assessed by mitochondrial DNA, these two species form separate monophyletic groups, but the genetic divergence between them is shallow (Alstr√∂m et al. 2013). Plumage varies considerably across the large geographic range of this complex, but no characters are diagnostic for either group (Donald and Alstr√∂m in preparation). Therefore Singing Bushlark is lumped into Australasian Bushlark, as Horsfield’s Bushlark Mirafra javanica. Each of the former species continues to be recognized as a polytypic group: Horsfield’s Bushlark (Singing) Mirafra javanica [cantillans Group], with subspecies marginata, chadensis, simplex, and cantillans; and Horsfield’s Bushlark (Australasian) Mirafra javanica [javanica Group], with subspecies williamsoni, philippinensis, mindanensis, javanica, parva, timorensis, aliena, woodwardi, halli, forresti, melvillensis, soderbergi, rufescens, athertonensis, horsfieldii, and secunda.

References:

 

pages 355-356, Crested Lark Galerida cristata

page 356, Maghreb Lark Galerida macrorhyncha

There is evidence of reproductive isolation in Morocco between Maghreb Lark and representatives of Crested Lark (subspecies kleinschmidti/riggenbachi/carthaginis), supported by evidence from mitochondrial DNA, morphology, and ecology (Guillaumet et al. 2005, 2006, 2008). But there is conflicting evidence from studies of mitochondrial DNA from across the wide distribution of the Maghreb‚ÄďCrested Lark complex (Guillaumet et al. 2008), suggesting the need for more comprehensive studies. Morphometrics of Maghreb Lark overlap with other long-billed forms of Crested Lark in northwestern Africa, such as riggenbachi and perhaps senegalensis (Donald and Alstr√∂m, in preparation). Therefore Maghreb Lark is lumped into Crested Lark, in the absence of a more comprehensive review of the entire complex. We continue to recognize Maghred Lark as a new polytypic group, Crested Lark (Maghreb) Galerida cristata macrorhyncha/randonii.

References:

 

page 428, Anjouan Brush-Warbler Nesillas longicaudata

page 428, Malagasy Brush-Warbler Nesillas typica

The vocalisations of Anjouan Brush-Warbler apparently are poorly, if at all, differentiated from those of Malagasy Brush-Warbler (Louette et al. 1988), and mitochondrial DNA sequence data also indicates poor separation between these two species (Fuchs et al. 2016). Accordingly, Anjouan Brush Warbler is treated as conspecific with Malagasy Brush-Warbler. We continue to recognize each of the two former species as separate groups: a monotypic group Malagasy Brush-Warbler (Anjouan) Nesillas typica longicaudata; and a polytypic group Malagasy Brush-Warbler (Malagasy) Nesillas typica [typica Group], with subspecies moheliensis, obscura, and typica.

References:

 

page 430, Eurasian Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus

page 430, African Reed Warbler Acrocephalus baeticatus

Eurasian Reed Warbler and African Reed Warbler have very similar morphologies and songs, do not differ in habitat choice (Dowset-Lemaire and Dowsett 1987, Kennerly and Pearson 2010), and genetic divergence between the two species also is shallow (Olsson et al. 2016). Therefore African Reed Warbler is lumped with Eurasian Reed Warbler. Change the English name of the combined species to Common Reed Warbler. African Reed Warbler continues to be recognized as a new polytypic group, Common Reed Warbler (African) Acrocephalus scirpaceus [baeticatus Group], with subspecies ambiguus, guiersi, cinnamomeus, hallae, suahelicus, and baeticatus.

Change the English name of the monotypic group Acrocephalus scirpaceus scirpaceus from Eurasian Reed Warbler (Eurasian) to Common Reed Warbler (Common).

Change the English name of the monotypic group Acrocephalus scirpaceus fuscus from Eurasian Reed Warbler (Caspian) to Common Reed Warbler (Caspian).

Change the English name of the monotypic group Acrocephalus scirpaceus avicenniae from Eurasian Reed Warbler (Mangrove) to Common Reed Warbler (Mangrove).

Change the English name of the monotypic group Acrocephalus scirpaceus ammon from Eurasian Reed Warbler (Siwa) to Common Reed Warbler (Siwa).

Revise the range description for subspecies ambiguus from “breeds northwestern Africa (Morocco to Tunisia) and southwestern Europe (Iberian Peninsula); Moroccan population at least partially resident, otherwise winters in sub-Saharan Africa, but range not known in detail” to “breeds northwestern Africa (Morocco to Tunisia) and southwestern Europe (Iberian Peninsula); Moroccan population at least partially resident, otherwise nonbreeding range poorly known but winters from Mauritania east at least to C√īte d’Ivoire, and probably to farther east”.

References:

 

page 498, Scaly-breasted Cupwing Pnoepyga albiventer

page addition (2014), Chinese Cupwing Pnoepyga mutica

Genetic divergence between Scaly-breasted Cupwing and Chinese Cupwing is relatively moderate (Päckert et al. 2013). However, the differences are not considered sufficiently different  for species status of Chinese Cupwing, and differences in song between the two species may be clinal rather than discrete (Boesman 2016p). Therefore Chinese Cupwing is lumped into Scaly-breasted Cupwing; we continue to recognize each former species as a separate group, a polytypic group Scaly-breasted Cupwing (Himalayan) Pnoepyga albiventer albiventer/pallidior, with subspecies pallidior and albiventer; and a monotypic group Scaly-breasted Cupwing (Chinese) Pnoepyga albiventer mutica.

References:

 

page 437, Tickell’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus affinis

page 437, Alpine Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus occisinensis

Zhang et al. (2019) showed a lack of genomic differentiation between Tickell’s Leaf Warbler and Alpine Leaf Warbler, and suggested that earlier reports of deep mitochondrial DNA divergence (Martens et al. 2008) was due to introgression of mtDNA into the Himalayan population from a now extinct species. Zhang et al. (2019) furthermore found these populations to be virtually identical in body measurements and plumage, and to exhibit clinal song differences across their vast geographic distribution, with song intermediacy in areas of contact, while showing pronounced distinctions in all respects from their sister species Sulphur-bellied Warbler Phylloscopus griseolus. Therefore Alpine Leaf Warbler is lumped into Tickell’s Leaf Warbler. We continue to recognize both of these former species as separate groups: a polytypic group Tickell’s Leaf Warbler (Tickell’s) Phylloscopus affinis affinis/perflavus, with subspecies perflavus and affinis; and a monotypic group Tickell’s Leaf Warbler (Alpine) Phylloscopus affinis occisinensis.

References:

 

page 426, Sunda Bush Warbler Horornis vulcanius

page 426, Aberrant Bush Warbler Horornis flavolivaceus

Sunda Bush Warbler and Aberrant Bush Warbler often are treated as separate species, although the circumscription differs among authors (particularly with regard to subspecies intricatus and oblitus). Results from phylogenetic analyses (Olsson et al. 2006, Alström et al. 2011) based on a small number of loci are conflicting, both between studies and between different analyses of the same data. Awaiting further analyses of genomic data and vocalisations, Sunda Bush Warbler is lumped into Aberrant Bush Warbler; nonetheless we continue to recognize a polytypic group Aberrant Bush Warbler (Sunda) Horornis flavolivaceus [vulcanius Group], with subspecies sepiarius, flaviventris, vulcanius, kolichisi, everetti, banksi, oreophilus, and palawanus. Note that this sequence is revised over the previous arrangement of subspecies of Sunda Bush Warbler: subspecies everetti now follows nominate vulcanius and subspecies kolichisi, rather than being the final subspecies; and subspecies oreophilus now follows, rather than precedes, subspecies banksi.

We recognize a previously overlooked subspecies, kolichisi Johnstone and Darnell 1997 (Johnstone and Darnell 1997), with range “Alor (Lesser Sundas)”. Insert kolichisi immediately following nominate vulcanius.

Subspecies alexandri, with range “Extreme ne India (Manipur) and adjacent Myanmar”, is considered to be a junior synonym of subspecies weberi (Kennerley and Pearson 2010), and is deleted. Revise the range description of weberi from “W Myanmar (Chin Hills)” to “extreme northeastern India (Nagaland, Manipur, and eastern Mizoram) and adjacent western Myanmar south to the Chin Hills”.

References:

 

Johnstone, R.E., and J.C. Darnell. 1997. Description of a new subspecies of Bush-Warbler of the genus Cettia from Alor Island, Indonesia. Western Australian Naturalist 31: 145-151. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/59087687

 

page 466, Arnot’s Chat Myrmecocichla arnotti

page 466, Ruaha Chat Myrmecocichla collaris

Ruaha Chat is lumped into Arnot’s Chat based on the conflicting patterns of variation among these taxa, evidence of ongoing gene flux among populations, the lack of vocal differentiation between populations, and ecological uniformity (Zuccon et al. unpublished). We continue to recognize Ruaha Chat as a monotypic group, Arnot’s Chat (Ruaha) Myrmecocichla arnotti collaris.

Revise the range of Arnot’s Chat (Ruaha) Myrmecocichla arnotti collaris from “Primarily w Tanzania; also extreme e Democratic Republic of the Congo, e Rwanda, Burundi, n Zambia; possibly also n Malawi” to “primarily western Tanzania (west of the Eastern Arc Mountains and southern highlands), also extreme eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, southern and eastern Rwanda, Burundi, and southwestern Uganda”.

 

page 617, Royal Parrotfinch Erythrura regia

page 617, Red-headed Parrotfinch Erythrura cyaneovirens

Royal Parrotfinch Erythrura regia is closely similar in plumage to Red-headed Parrotfinch Erythrura cyaneovirens. Gomes et al. (2016) suggested that it was necessary to recognize Royal Parrotfinch as a species to avoid polyphyly, but did not document this assertion; in the absence, at least for now, of evidence that would compel recognition of two species, provisionally Royal Parrotfinch is is lumped into Red-headed Parrotfinch. We continue to recognize each former species as separate polytypic groups: Royal Parrotfinch (Vanuatu) Erythrura cyaneovirens [regia Group], with subspecies regia, efatensis, and serena; and Royal Parrotfinch (Samoan) Erythrura cyaneovirens cyaneovirens/gaughrani, with subspecies cyanovirens and gaughrani.

Reference:

Gomes, A.C.R., M.D. Sorenson, and G.C. Cardoso. 2016. Speciation is associated with changing ornamentation rather than stronger sexual selection. Evolution 70: 2823-2838. https://doi.org/10.1111/evo.13088

 

page 615, African Firefinch Lagonosticta rubricata

page 615, Pale-billed Firefinch Lagonosticta landanae

Pale-billed Firefinch is lumped into African Firefinch. Differences between Pale-billed Firefinch and other subspecies of African Firefinch are so slight (Payne 2004) that we do not even recognize landanae as a monotypic group. Insert landanae immediately following subspecies haematocephala.

Reference:

 

page 400, Radde’s Accentor Prunella ocularis

page 400, Yemen Accentor Prunella fagani

Yemen Accentor is lumped into Radde’s Accentor. Genetic divergence between the two taxa is very low (Drovetski et al. 2013); plumage differences also are very slight, and there is no evidence of different vocalizations (Kirwan et al. 2021). We continue to recognize the two as new monotypic groups: Radde’s Accentor (Radde’s) Prunella ocularis ocularis; and Radde’s Accentor (Yemen) Prunella ocularis fagani.

References:

ORDERS AND FAMILIES

There are no changes to the number, composition, or sequence of orders and families in this update. The only change is a minor nomenclatural update:

FAMILIES (nomenclature)

page 483, Falcunculidae Shrike-tit

Following the split of Crested Shrike-tit Falcunculus frontatus into three species, change the English name of Falcunculidae from Shrike-tit to Shrike-tits.

 

STANDARD UPDATES and CORRECTIONS

 

The section consists of a wide range of additional revisions, such as changes to English or scientific names that are not associated with a split or a lump; additions or deletions of subspecies; adjustments to the composition of groups; and revisions to the ranges of species or subspecies. Compilation of these updates and corrections is in progress; a comprehensive roster of these revisions will be posted as soon as this compilation is complete. In the meantime, please note that all revisions also are documented in the eBird/Clements Checklist v2022 downloadable spreadsheet.

 

 

GROUPS

 

GROUPS ‚Äď newly created groups

  • Dusky Megapode (Dusky) Megapodius freycinet [freycinet Group]
  • Dusky Megapode (Forsten’s) Megapodius freycinet forsteni/buruensis
  • Chestnut-naped Spurfowl (Northern) Pternistis castaneicollis castaneicollis
  • Chestnut-naped Spurfowl (Black-fronted) Pternistis castaneicollis atrifrons
  • Pheasant Coucal (Timor)¬†Centropus phasianinus mui
  • Fiery-necked Nightjar (Black-shouldered) Caprimulgus pectoralis nigriscapularis
  • Fiery-necked Nightjar (Fiery-necked)¬†Caprimulgus pectoralis [pectoralis Group]
  • Montane Nightjar (Abyssinian) Caprimulgus poliocephalus poliocephalus
  • Montane Nightjar (Rwenzori) Caprimulgus poliocephalus [ruwenzorii Group]
  • Black-throated Mango (Black-throated)¬†Anthracothorax nigricollis nigricollis
  • Wedge-tailed Sabrewing (Long-tailed) Pampa curvipennis excellens
  • Black-tailed Godwit (bohaii)¬†Limosa limosa bohaii
  • Mountain Hawk-Eagle (nipalensis)¬†Nisaetus nipalensis nipalensis
  • Mountain Hawk-Eagle (orientalis)¬†Nisaetus nipalensis orientalis
  • Madagascar Scops-Owl (Rainforest) Otus rutilus rutilus
  • Madagascar Scops-Owl (Torotoroka) Otus rutilus madagascariensis
  • Fraser’s Eagle-Owl (Western) Ketupa poensis poensis
  • Fraser’s Eagle-Owl (Usambara) Ketupa poensis vosseleri
  • Blakiston’s Fish-Owl (doerriesi)¬†Ketupa blakistoni doerriesi
  • Blakiston’s Fish-Owl (blakistoni)¬†Ketupa blakistoni blakistoni
  • Brown Wood-Owl (Nias)¬†Strix leptogrammica niasensis
  • Ural Owl (Ural)¬†Strix uralensis [uralensis Group]
  • Ural Owl (Pere David’s) Strix uralensis davidi
  • Moluccan Dwarf-Kingfisher (North Moluccan) Ceyx lepidus uropygialis
  • Moluccan Dwarf-Kingfisher (Seram) Ceyx lepidus Lepidus
  • North Solomons Dwarf-Kingfisher (Bougainville) Ceyx meeki pallidus
  • North Solomons Dwarf-Kingfisher (North Solomons) Ceyx meeki meeki
  • Guadalcanal Dwarf-Kingfisher (Malaita) Ceyx nigromaxilla malaitae
  • Guadalcanal Dwarf-Kingfisher (Guadalcanal) Ceyx nigromaxilla nigromaxilla
  • Tuamotu Kingfisher (Niau) Todiramphus gambieri gertrudae
  • Tuamotu Kingfisher (Mangareva) Todiramphus gambieri gambieri
  • Lesser Honeyguide (Thick-billed) Indicator minor conirostris/ussheri
  • Lesser Honeyguide (Lesser) Indicator minor [minor Group]
  • Great Spotted Woodpecker (poelzami)¬†Dendrocopos major poelzami
  • Great Spotted Woodpecker (japonicus)¬†Dendrocopos major japonicus
  • Great Spotted Woodpecker (cabanisi/stresemanni)¬†Dendrocopos major cabanisi/stresemanni
  • Ruddy Spinetail (Ruddy)¬†Synallaxis rutilans [rutilans Group]
  • Ruddy Spinetail (Sooty)¬†Synallaxis rutilans omissa
  • White-crowned Manakin (Choco)¬†Pseudopipra pipra minima
  • White-crowned Manakin (Colombian)¬†Pseudopipra pipra unica/bolivari
  • White-crowned Manakin (Foothills)¬†Pseudopipra pipra coracina
  • White-crowned Manakin (Subtropical)¬†Pseudopipra pipra comata/occulta
  • White-crowned Manakin (Guianan)¬†Pseudopipra pipra pipra
  • White-crowned Manakin (Amazonian)¬†Pseudopipra pipra [microlopha Group]
  • White-crowned Manakin (Atlantic)¬†Pseudopipra pipra cephaleucos
  • White-crested Tyrannulet (Sulphur-bellied) Serpophaga subcristata subcristata/straminea
  • White-crested Tyrannulet (White-bellied) Serpophaga subcristata munda
  • White-browed Shrike-Babbler (Himalayan) Pteruthius aeralatus ripleyi
  • White-browed Shrike-Babbler (Blyth’s) Pteruthius aeralatus [aeralatus Group]
  • White-browed Shrike-Babbler (Dalat) Pteruthius aeralatus annamensis
  • Dark-throated Oriole (Dark-throated)¬†Oriolus xanthonotus xanthonotus/mentawi
  • Dark-throated Oriole (Ventriloquial)¬†Oriolus xanthonotus consobrinus/persuasus
  • Maroon Oriole (Maroon)¬†Oriolus traillii traillii/robinsoni
  • Maroon Oriole (Crimson)¬†Oriolus traillii ardens/nigellicauda
  • Spike-heeled Lark (Spike-heeled) Chersomanes albofasciata [albofasciata Group]
  • Spike-heeled Lark (Beesley’s) Chersomanes albofasciata beesleyi
  • Karoo Long-billed Lark (Karoo) Certhilauda subcoronata [subcoronata Group]
  • Karoo Long-billed Lark (Benguela) Certhilauda subcoronata benguelensis/kaokoensis
  • Cape Lark (Cape) Certhilauda curvirostris curvirostris/falcirostris
  • Cape Lark (Agulhas) Certhilauda curvirostris brevirostris
  • Fawn-colored Lark (Fawn-colored) Calendulauda africanoides [africanoides Group]
  • Fawn-colored Lark (Foxy) Calendulauda africanoides alopex/intercedens
  • Dune Lark (Dune) Calendulauda erythrochlamys erythrochlamys
  • Horsfield’s Bushlark (Singing) Mirafra javanica [cantillans Group]
  • Horsfield’s Bushlark (Australasian) Mirafra javanica [javanica Group]
  • Crested Lark (Crested) Galerida cristata [cristata Group]
  • Crested Lark (Maghreb) Galerida cristata macrorhyncha/randonii
  • Malagasy Brush-Warbler (Anjouan) Nesillas typica longicaudata
  • Malagasy Brush-Warbler (Malagasy) Nesillas typica [typica Group]
  • Common Reed Warbler (African) Acrocephalus scirpaceus [baeticatus Group]
  • Scaly-breasted Cupwing (Himalayan) Pnoepyga albiventer albiventer/pallidior
  • Scaly-breasted Cupwing (Chinese) Pnoepyga albiventer mutica
  • Tickell’s Leaf Warbler (Tickell’s) Phylloscopus affinis affinis/perflavus
  • Tickell’s Leaf Warbler (Alpine) Phylloscopus affinis occisinensis
  • Japanese Bush Warbler (Northern)¬†Horornis diphone [cantans Group]
  • Japanese Bush Warbler (Bonin)¬†Horornis diphone diphone
  • Aberrant Bush Warbler (Sunda) Horornis flavolivaceus [vulcanius Group]
  • Thrush-like Wren (Spot-breasted)¬†Campylorhynchus turdinus turdinus/hypostictus
  • Thrush-like Wren (Unspotted)¬†Campylorhynchus turdinus unicolor
  • Common Hill Myna (Simeulue)¬†Gracula religiosa miotera
  • Common Hill Myna (Nias) Gracula religiosa robusta
  • Common Hill Myna (Enggano) Gracula religiosa enganensis
  • Chestnut Thrush (Silver-headed)¬†Turdus rubrocanus rubrocanus
  • Chestnut Thrush (Gray-headed)¬†Turdus rubrocanus gouldii
  • Asian Brown Flycatcher (Northern)¬†Muscicapa dauurica dauurica
  • Asian Brown Flycatcher (Siamese)¬†Muscicapa dauurica siamensis
  • White-rumped Shama (Long-tailed)¬†Copsychus malabaricus ngae
  • Short-tailed Akalat (Short-tailed)¬†Sheppardia poensis [kungwensis Group]
  • White-crowned Forktail (Northern) Enicurus leschenaulti sinensis/indicus
  • White-crowned Forktail (Malaysian)¬†Enicurus leschenaulti frontalis/chaseni
  • Red-flanked Bluetail (Red-flanked)¬†Tarsiger cyanurus cyanurus
  • Red-flanked Bluetail (Qilian)¬†Tarsiger cyanurus albocoeruleus
  • White-browed Bush-Robin (White-browed)¬†Tarsiger indicus indicus/yunnanensis
  • White-browed Bush-Robin (Taiwan)¬†Tarsiger indicus formosanus
  • Royal Parrotfinch (Vanuatu)¬†Erythrura cyaneovirens [regia Group]
  • Fawn-breasted Waxbill (benguellensis)¬†Estrilda paludicola benguellensis
  • Radde’s Accentor (Radde’s) Prunella ocularis ocularis
  • Radde’s Accentor (Yemen) Prunella ocularis fagani
  • House Sparrow (Gray-cheeked)¬†Passer domesticus [domesticus Group]
  • House Sparrow (Indian)¬†Passer domesticus [indicus Group]
  • Oriental Greenfinch (Oriental)¬†Chloris sinica [sinica Group]
  • Oriental Greenfinch (Bonin)¬†Chloris sinica kittlitzi
  • Riverbank Warbler (Bolivian)¬†Myiothlypis rivularis boliviana
  • Riverbank Warbler (Southern)¬†Myiothlypis rivularis rivularis