Selected References on the American Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm, compiled by Kevin J. McGowan.

Aldous, S. E. 1944. Winter habits of crows in Oklahoma. J. Wildl. Manage. 8: 290-295. 

Anderson, J. F., T. G. Andreadis, et al. 1999. Isolation of West Nile virus from mosquitoes, crows, and a Cooper's hawk in Connecticut. Science 286 (5448): 2331-2333.

Barrows, W. B. 1888. The food of crows. U.S. Dept. Agri. Report 1888 498-535.

Barrows, W. B., and E. A. Schwarz. 1895. The common crow of the United States. U.S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 6: 1-98.

Beal, F. E. L. 1915. Some common birds useful to the farmer. U.S. Dept. Agri. Farmers' Bull. 630:

Beal, F. E. L., W. L. MacAtee, and E. R. Kalmbach. 1916. The food of some common southern birds. U.S. Dept. of Agr. Farmers' Bull. 755:

Bendire, C. E. 1895 . Life histories of North American birds. U. S. Natl. Mus. Species Bull. 3:

Black, C. T. 1941. Ecological and economic relation of the crow with special reference to Illinois. Ph.D., University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois.

Boutin, C., K. E. Freemark, et al. 1999. Farmland birds in southern Ontario: Field use, activity patterns and vulnerability to pesticide use. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 72(3): 239-254.

Braekevelt, C. R. 1994. Retinal photoreceptor fine structure in the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 23: 376-387.

Braekevelt, C. R. 1994. Retinal pigment epithelial fine structure in the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 23: 367-375.

Braekevelt, C. R. 1994. Fine structure of the pecten oculi in the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 23: 357-366.

Brault, A. C., S. A. Langevin, R. A. Bowen, N. A. Panella, B. J. Biggerstaff, B. R. Miller, and N. Komar.  2004.  Differential virulence of West nile strains for American Crows.  Emerging Infectious Diseases 10: 2161-2168.

Brown, M., and B. V. Goodwin. 1943. Flight-speeds of hawks and crows. Auk 60: 487-492.

Brown, E. D. 1985. Social relationship as a variable affecting responses to mobbing and alarm calls of Common Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Z. Tierpsychol. 70: 45-52.

Brown, E. D. 1985. Functional interrelationships among the mobbing and alarm caws of common crows. Z. Tierpsychol 67: 17-33.

Brown, E. D. 1985. The role of song and vocal imitation among Common Crows (C. brachyrhynchos). Z. Tierpsychol 68: 115-136.

Brown, K. L., and J. M. Greene. 1987. Genetic variation in a wintering flock of the American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Trans Kans Acad Sci 90: 113-119.

Brunton, D. 1999. Optimal colony size for Least Terns: An intercolony study of opposing selective pressures by predators. Condor 101(3): 607-615.

Butler, K. L., S. D. Fitzgerald, et al. 2001. Experimental inoculation of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) with Mycobacterium bovis. Avian Diseases 45(3): 709-718.

Caccamise, D. F., and P. C. Stouffer. 1995. Risks of using alpha-chloralose to capture crows. J. Field Ornithol. 65: 458-460.

Caccamise, D. F., L. M. Reed, J. Romanowski, and P. C. Stouffer. 1997. Roosting behavior and group territoriality in American Crows. Auk 114: 628-637.

Caffrey, C. 1987. To help or not to help? Not so straightforward in American Crows. . Pages In Abstracts of scientific papers presented at the 105th stated meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union, San Francisco, California.,

Caffrey, C. 1990. Unusual structure and demography in cooperatively breeding American crows. . Pages In Abstracts of scientific papers presented at the 108th stated meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union and 60th annual meeting of the Cooper Ornithological Society, Los Angeles, California.,

Caffrey, C. 1991. Breeding group structure and the effects of helpers in cooperatively breeding Western American Crows. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles.

Caffrey, C. 1992. Female-biased delayed dispersal and helping in American Crows. Auk 109: 609-619.

Caffrey, C. 1999. Feeding rates and individual contributions to feeding at nests in cooperatively breeding Western American Crows. Auk 116: 836-841.

Caffrey, C.  2000.  Correlates of reproductive success in cooperatively breeding Western American Crows: If helpers help, it's not by much.   Condor 102: 333-341.

Caffrey, C. 2000. Tool modification and use by an American Crow. Wilson Bulletin 112(2): 283-284.

Caffrey, C. 2001. Goal-directed use of objects by American Crows. Wilson Bulletin 13(1): 114-115.

Caffrey, C., T. J. Weston, and S. C. R. Smith. 2003. High mortality among marked crows subsequent to th arrival of West Nile virus. Wildlife Society Bulletin 31: 870-872.

Caffrey, C. S. C. R. Smith, and T. J. Weston. 2005. West Nile virus devastates an American Crow population. Condor 107: 128-132.

Cawthorn, R. J., and G. A. Wobeser. 1985. Exogenous and endogenous stages of isospora-brachyrhynchi new- species protozoa eimeriidae from the American Crow Corvus brachyrhynchos. Can J Zool 63: 2639-2645.

Chamberlain, M. 1884. The crow (Corvus frugivorus) as a fisherman. Auk 1: 391.

Chamberlain, D. R., and G. W. Cornwell. 1971. Selected vocalizations of the Common Crow. Auk 88: 613-634.

Chamberlain-Auger, J. A., P. J. Auger, and E. G. Strauss. 1990. Breeding biology of American Crows. Wilson Bull. 102: 615-622.

Chesness, R. A., M. M. Nelson, and W. H. Longley. 1968. The effect of predator removal on pheasant reproductive success. J. Wildl. Manage. 32: 683-697.

Cibois, A. and E. Pasquet 1999. Molecular analysis of the phylogeny of 11 genera of the Corvidae. Ibis 141(2): 297-306.

Clapp, R. B., M. K. Klimkiewicz, and A. G. Futcher. 1983. Longevity records of North American birds: Columbidae through Paridae. J Field Ornithol 54: 123-137.

Clapp, R. B., and R. C. Banks. 1993. Nesting seasons, nest sites, and clutch sizes of crows in Virginia. Raven 64: 90-98.

Clark, R. G., P. C. James, and J. B. Morari. 1991. Sexing adult and yearling American Crows by external measurements and discriminant analysis. J Field Ornithol 62: 132-138.

Clark, R. G., D. E. Meger, and J. B. Ignatiuk. 1995. Removing American crows and duck nesting success. Can J Zool 73: 518-522.

Conner, R. N., I. D. Prather, and C. S. Adkisson. 1975. Common Raven and Starling reliance on sentinel Common Crows. Condor 77: 517 .

Conner, R. N., and J. H. Williamson. 1984. Food storing by American Crows. Bull. Texas Ornithol. Soc. 17: 13-14.

Conover, M. R. 1985. Protecting vegetables from crows using an animated crow- killing owl model. J. Wildl. Manage. 49: 643-645.

Conover, M. R. 1987. Reducing raccoon and bird damage to small corn plots. Wildl Soc Bull 15: 268-272.

Cristol, D. A., P. V. Switzer, et al. 1997. Crows do not use automobiles as nutcrackers: Putting an anecdote to the test. Auk 114(2): 296-298.

Cristol, D., A. and P. Switzer, V. 1999. Avian prey-dropping behavior. II. American crows and walnuts. Behavioral Ecology 10(3): 220-226.

Cristol, D. A. 2001. American crows cache less preferred walnuts. Animal Behaviour 62(2): 331-336.

Crook, C. 1936. A winter food supply for the crow. Auk 53: 337-338.

D'Agostino, G. M., L. E. Giovinazzo, and S. W. Eaton. 1981 . The sentinel crow as an extension of parental care. Wilson Bull. 93: 394-395 .

Davis, L. I. 1958. Acoustic evidence of relationship in North American crows. Wilson Bull. 70: 151-167.

Davis, J. 1963. (Review) The biosystematics of American crows by David W. Johnston. Auk 80: 566-567.

De Santo, T. L. and M. F. Willson 2001. Predator abundance and predation of artificial nests in natural and anthropogenic coniferous forest edges in southeast Alaska. Journal of Field Ornithology 72(1): 136-149.

Dexter, R. W. 1942. Returns from a nest of banded crows. Bird Banding 13: 120.

Dilling, F. A. 1988. Crow longevity record. Ontario Bird Banding Assoc. Newsletter 33: 2-3.

Dimmick, C. R., and L. K. Nicolaus. 1990. Efficiency of conditioned aversion in reducing depredation by crows. J Appl Ecol 27: 200-209.

Dwight, J., Jr. 1900. The sequence of plumages and moults of the passerine birds of New York. Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci. 13: 73-360.

Eidson, M., J. Miller, et al. 2001. Dead crow densities and human cases of West Nile virus, New York State, 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7(4): 662-664.

Eidson, M., N. Komar, et al. 2001. Crow deaths as a sentinel surveillance system for West Nile virus in the Northeastern United States, 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7(4): 615-620.

Emlen, J. T., Jr. 1938. Midwinter distribution of the American Crow in New York state . Ecol. 19: 264-275.

Emlen, J. T., Jr. 1940. The mid-winter distribution of the crow in California. Condor 42: 287-294.

Emlen, J. T., Jr. 1942. Notes on a nesting colony of western crows. Bird-Banding 13: 143-154.

Everding, S. and R. Montgomerie 2000. Movements and habitat use of the Torresian Crow in a subtropical suburban environment. Emu 100(3): 192-198.

Finley, K. J. 1992. Crows say caw. Blue Jay 50:

Friesen, V. C. 1977. Do crows say caw? Blue Jay 35: 35-37.

Friesen, V. C. 1991. Crows and their cawing. Blue Jay 49: 123-125.

Frings, H., and M. Frings. 1957. Recorded calls of the eastern crow as attractants and repellents. J. Wildl. Manage. 21: 91-91.

Frings, H., M. Frings, J. Jumber, R.-G. Busnel, J. Giban, and P. Gramet. 1958. Reactions of American and French species of Corvus and Larus to recorded communication signals tested reciprocally. Ecology 39: 126-131.

Frings, H., and M. Frings. 1959. The language of crows. Sci. Amer. 201: 119-131.

Gardener, L. L. 1926. Experiments in the economic control of the Western Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos hesperis). Auk 43: 447-461.

Gilbert, B. 1989. Interview: The Crow Man. Life. Jun 12: 25-27.

Gilbert, B. 1989. One Fine Crow. Reader's Digest. Apr 134: 149-152.

Good, E. E. 1952. The life history of the American Crow - Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm. Ph.D. thesis, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Goodhue, L. D., and F. M. Baumgartner. 1965. Applications of new bird control chemicals. J. Wildl. Manage. 29: 830-837.

Gorenzel, W. P., and T. P. Salmon. 1995. Characteristics of American crow urban roosts in California. Journal of Wildlife Management 59: 638-645.

Greenwood, R. J., and A. B. Sargeant. 1995. Effect of a commonly-used nest marker on nest success of ducks in prairie Canada. Canadian Field Naturalist 109: 437-440.

Grzybowski, J. A. 1999. Southern Great Plains Region. North American Birds 53(4): 403-405. - Estimated half million American Crows in Sedgwick, KS 14 Mar 1999. 15 Fish Crows in Montgomery, Chautauqua, and Cherokee, KS 2 May 1999.

Haase, B. L. 1963. The winter flocking behavior of the Common Crow . Ohio J. Sci. 63: 145-151.

Hauser, M. D., and C. Caffrey. 1994. Anti-predator response to raptor calls in wild crows, Corvus brachyrhynchos hesperis. Animal Behaviour 48: 1469-1471.

Heinrich, B. 1988. Winter foraging at carcasses by three sympatric corvids with emphasis on recruitment by the raven Corvus corax. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 23: 141-156.

Heinrich, B. 1988. Why do ravens fear their food. Condor 90: 950-952.

Heinrich, B. 1999. Planning to facilitate caching: Possible suet cutting by a Common Raven. Wilson Bulletin 111(2): 276-278.

Henry, V. G. 1969. Predation on dummy nests of ground-nesting birds in the southern Appalachians. J. Wildl. Manage. 33: 169-172.

Hering, P. E. 1934. The food of the American Crow in central New York state. Auk 51: 470-476.

Hobson, K. A., and R. G. Clark. 1992. Assessing avian diets using stable isotopes I. turnover of carbon-13 in tissues. Condor 94: 181-188.

Hobson, K. A., and R. G. Clark. 1992. Assessing avian diets using stable isotopes II: factors influencing diet-tissue fractionation. Condor 94: 189-197.

Hobson, K. A., and R. G. Clark. 1993. Turnover of 13C in cellular and plasma fractions of blood: Implications for nondestructive sampling in avian dietary studies. Auk 110: 638-641.

Hoffman, W. E. 1924. The crow in relation to pecan culture. Wilson Bull. 36: 175-184.

Hogrefe, T. C., R. H. Yahner, et al. 1998. Depredation of artificial ground nests in a suburban versus a rural landscape. Journal of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 72(1): 3-6.

Horn, D. J. 1999. The species richness of birds visiting a yard is influenced by the feeders/seeds present. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science 106(2): 21-25.

Humphrey, R. C. 1989. Observations on cooperative mobbing of a bald eagle. J Raptor Res 23:

Hunt, G. R. 2000. Tool use by the New Caledonian Crow Corvus moneduloides to obtain Cerambycidae from dead wood. Emu 100(2): 109-114.

Hunt, G. R. 2000. Human-like, population-level specialization in the manufacture of pandanus tools by New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences Series B 267(1441): 403-413.

Iams, Gerald. 1972. State of Oklahoma Upland Game Inventory W-82-R-10. (two million crows in Ft. Cobb roost!)

Ignatiuk, J. B., and R. G. Clark. 1991. Breeding biology of American Crows in a Saskatchewan parkland habitat . Can. J. Zool. 69: 168-175.

Imler, R. 1939. Comparison of the food of White-necked Ravens and crows in Oklahoma. Wilson Bull. 51: 121-122.

Jefferson, B. 1991. Evidence of pair bonding between Common Raven Corvus corax and American Crow Corvus brachyrhynchos. Ont Birds 9: 45-48.

Jefferson, E. A. 1994. Successful hybridization of Common Raven and American Crow. Ontario Birds 12: 32-35.

Johnson, D. H., A. B. Sargeant, and R. J. Greenwood. 1989. Importance of individual species of predators on nesting success of ducks in the Canadian prairie pothole region. Can J Zool 67: 291-297.

Johnston, D. W., and F. S. L. Williamson. 1960. Heart weights of North American crows and ravens. Wilson Bull. 72: 248-252.

Johnston, D. W. 1961. The biosystematics of American crows. Univ. of Washington Press, Seattle, Washington.

Kalmbach, E. R. 1916. Winter crow roosts. U.S. Dept. Agric. Yearbook 1915: 83-100.

Kalmbach, E. R. 1920. The crow in its relation to agriculture. USDA Farmers' Bull. 1102: 1-20.

Kalmbach, E. R. 1937. Crow-waterfowl relationships: based on preliminary studies on Canadian breeding grounds. U.S.D.A. Circular 433: 1-36.

Kalmbach, E. R. 1939. The crow in its relation to agriculture. USDA Farmers' Bull. 1102 (rev. ed.): 1-21.

Kalmbach, E. R., and S. E. Aldous. 1940. Winter banding of Oklahoma crows. Wilson Bull. 52: 198-206.

Kilham, L. 1982. Common Crows pulling the tail and stealing food from a river otter. Florida Field Nat. 10: 39-40.

Kilham, L. 1982. Common Crows and a Florida Red-shouldered Hawk mobbing feathers on the ground. Florida Field Nat. 10: 23.

Kilham, L. 1984. Cooperative breeding of American Crows. J. Field Ornithol. 55: 349-356.

Kilham, L. 1984. Foraging and food-storing of American Crows in Florida. Florida Field Nat. 12: 25-31.

Kilham, L. 1984. Play-like behavior of American Crows. Florida Field Nat. 12: 33-36.

Kilham, L. 1984. Intra- and extra-pair copulatory behavior of American Crows. Wilson Bull. 96: 716-717.

Kilham, L. 1985. Territorial behavior of American Crows. Wilson Bull. 97: 389-390.

Kilham, L. 1985. Common raven Corvus corax robs American crow Corvus brachyrhynchos in aerial chase. Can Field Nat 99:

Kilham, L. 1985. Sustained robbing of American Crows by Common Raven at a feeding station. J Field Ornithol 56: 425-426.

Kilham, L. 1985. American crows robbing great egrets and white ibis of large eel-like salamanders. Colon Waterbirds 7: 143-145.

Kilham, L. 1985. Attacks on fawns, pigs, and other young or weakened mammals by American Crows. Florida Field Nat. 13: 17-18.

Kilham, L. 1985. American Crows provoking reactions from Wild Turkeys and Red-shouldered Hawks. Florida Field Nat. 13: 94-95.

Kilham, L. 1985. Behavior of American Crows in the early part of the breeding cycle. Florida Field Nat. 13: 25-31.

Kilham, L. 1985. Some breeding season vocalizations of American Crows in Flordia. Florida Field Nat. 13: 49-57.

Kilham, L. 1986. Vocalizations by female American Crows early in the nesting period. J Field Ornithol 57: 309-310.

Kilham, L. 1986. Renestings of American Crows in Florida and predation by raccoons. Florida Field Nat. 14: 21-23.

Kilham, L. 1989. The American Crow and the Common Raven. Texas A & M University Press, College Station, Texas.

Kilham, L. 1989. An extraordinary bird. Birder's World 3: 19-23.

Kirkpatrick, C. M. 1950. Crow predation upon nestling cottontails. J. Mamm. 31: 322-327.

Knapton, R. W., and S. Maturi. 1984. Observations at a major crow roost in St. Catherines, Ontario. Ont. Birds 2: 46-48.

Knight, R. L., and S. A. Temple. 1986. Methodological problems in studies of avian nest defense. Anim Behav 34: 561-566.

Knight, R. L., D. J. Grout, and S. A. Temple. 1987. Nest-defense behavior of the American Crow in urban and rural areas. Condor 89: 175-177.

Knight, R. L., and D. P. Anderson. 1990. Effects of supplemental feeding on an avian scavenging guild. Wildl Soc Bull 18: 388-394.

Knight, R. L., D. P. Anderson, and N. V. Marr. 1991. Responses of an avian scavenging guild to anglers. Biol Conserv 56: 195-206.

Knopf, F. L., and B. A. Knopf. 1983. Flocking patterns of foraging American Crows in Oklahoma. Wilson Bull. 95: 153-155 .

Komar, N. 2000. West Nile viral encephalitis. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties 19(1): 166-176.

Komar N., S. Langevin, S. Hinten, N. Nemeth, E. Edwards, D. Hetler, B. Davis, R. Bowen, and M. Bunning. 2003. Experimental infection of North American birds with the New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9:311-22.

Maccarone, A. D. 1987. Sentinel behavior in American Crows. Bird Behav 7: 93-95.

Maccarone, A. D. 1991. Seasonal use of foraging habitats by American Crows in central New Jersey. Bird Behav 9: 34-40.

Maccarone, A. D. 1993. Breeding colonies and foraging habitats of herons in sedgwick county Kansas. Trans Kans Acad Sci 96: 94-102.

Matyniak, K. A., G. L. Wheeler, and L. J. Stettner. 1971. Reversal learning in the crow, Corvus americanus. Comm. Behav. Biol. 6: 177-185.

Marzluff, J. M., K. J. McGowan, R. Donnelly, and R. L. Knight.  2001.  Causes and consequences of expanding American Crow populations. Pp. 331-363 in Avian ecology and conservation in an urbanizing world (J. M. Marzluff, R. Bowman, and R. Donelly, eds.).    Kluwer Academic Press, Norwell, MA. [For a pdf version of this paper (1,236 kb), click here.]

McGowan, K.J. 1993. Big, black, and beautiful. The World & I 8(1): 248-253.

McGowan, K. J. 1995. A test of whether economy or nutrition determines fecal sac ingestion in nesting corvids. Condor 97: 50-56.  [For a pdf version of this paper (544 kb) click here.   All Condor papers are available from the Cooper Ornithological Society.]

McGowan, K. J. 1996. Family lives of the uncommon American Crow. Cornell Plantations 51: 1-4.

McGowan, K.J.  1998.   A demographic description of the co-operatively breeding American Crow Corvus brachyrhynchos. In: Adams, N. J. & R. H. Slotow, (eds) Proceedings of the 22nd International Ornithological Congress, Durban, South Africa, 16-22 August 1998. Ostrich 69 (3&4): 328.

McGowan, K. J. 2001.  Demographic and behavioral comparisons of suburban and rural American Crows.  Pp. 365-381 in Avian ecology and conservation in an urbanizing world (J. M. Marzluff, R. Bowman, and R. Donelly, eds.).   Kluwer Academic Press, Norwell, MA. [For a pdf version of this paper (496 kb), click here.]

McGowan, K. J. 2001.  Fish Crow (Corvus ossifragus). In The Birds of North America, No. 589 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

McGowan, K. J. 2001.  Crows and Jays, Family Corvidae. Pp. 408-415 in The Sibley Guide to Bird Life and Behavior (C. Elphick; J. B. Dunning, Jr.; and D. A. Sibley, eds.). A. A. Knopf, New York.

McGowan, K. J., and C. Caffrey. 1995. Does drugging crows for capture cause abnormally high mortality? J. Field Ornithol. 65: 453-457.

Mitchell, H. H. 1915. Crows nesting on the ground. Auk 32: 229.

Moore, J. C. 1951. Additional incident of crow attack on rabbit. J. Mamm. 32: 223.

Moore, J. E. and P. V. Switzer 1998. Preroosting aggregations in the American crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76(3): 508-512.

Morrison, K. P. 1995. Sharp-shinned Hawk and Common Crow migration along Georgian Bay. Ont. Birds 13: 74-76.

Nero, R. W. 1968. Another record of white wing-barring in the Common Crow. Can. Field-Nat. 82: 42-43.

Panella, N. A., A. J. Kerst, et al. 2001. Comparative West Nile virus detection in organs of naturally infected American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Emerging Infectious Diseases 7(4): 754-755.

Parmalee, P. W. 1952. Growth and development of the nestling crow. Amer. Midl. Natur. 47: 183-201.

Parr, C. S. 1996. Social behavior and long-distance vocal communication in eastern American Crows. Ph.D. thesis. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Phillips, A. R. 1942. A new crow from Arizona. Auk 59: 573-575.

Pittaway, R. 1988. Wing-tail flicking as a means of distinguishing crows from ravens. Ont Birds 6: 74-75.

Platt, D. 1956. Food of the crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm, in South-central Kansas. Univ. Kansas Publ., Mus. Nat. Hist. 8: 477-498.

Preston, R. 1957. The look-out perch as a factor in predation by crows. Wilson Bull. 69: 368-370.

Prior, K. A., and P. J. Weatherhead. 1991. Competition at the carcass opportunities for social foraging by turkey vultures in southern Ontario Canada. Can J Zool 69: 1550-1556.

Quiring, D. T., and P. R. Timmins. 1988. Predation by American crows reduces overwintering European corn borer populations in southwestern Ontario. Can J Zool 66: 2143-2145.

Raney, P., Jr. 1986 (1988). Interactions of Fish Crows with American Crows at a landfill near Roswell, Georgia. Oriole 51 : 48.

Rea, A. M. 1967. Age determination of Corvidae. Part 1: Common Crow. Western Bird Bander 42: 44-47.

Reaume, T. 1987. Nest building by American crows. Ont Birds 5: 102-105.

Reaume, T. 1987. Selective feeding by the American crow. Ont Birds 5: 71-72.

Reaume, T. 1988. Voice of the American crow. Ont Birds 6: 23-24.

Reed, L. M., J. Romanowski, D. F. Caccamise, and P. C. Stouffer. 1992. Roosting behavior in radio-tagged American Crows . Pages In Abstracts of scientific papers presented at the 110th stated meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union, Ames, Iowa,

Richards, D. B., and N. S. Thompson. 1978. Critical properties of the assembly call of the American Crow. Behav. 64: 184-203.

Ringia, A. M., B. J. Blitvich, H-Y. Koo, M. Van de Wyngaerde, J. D. Brawn, and R. J. Novak.  2004.   Anitibody prevalence of West Nile virus in birds, Illinois, 2002.  Emerging Infectious Diseases 10: 1120-1124.

Robinette, R. L. and J. C. Ha 2001. Social and ecological factors influencing vigilance by northwestern crows, Corvus caurinus. Animal Behaviour 62(3): 447-452.

Saiza, A. 1968. Age determination of Corvidae. Part III. Juvenals. Western Bird Bander 43: 20-23.

Saunders, M., A. and S. Edwards, V. 2000. Dynamics and phylogenetic implications of MtDNA control region sequences in New World Jays (Aves: Corvidae). Journal of Molecular Evolution 51(2): 97-109.

Schaefer, J. M. 1983. The common crow as a sentinel species of rabies in wildlife populations. Ph.D., Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.

Schaefer, J. M., and J. J. Dinsmore. 1992. Movement of a nestling between American Crow nests. Wilson Bull. 104: 185-187.

Schulte, L. A. and G. J. Niemi 1998. Bird communities of early-successional burned and logged forest. Journal of Wildlife Management 62(4): 1418-1429.

Sealy, S. 1967. Record of white wing-barring in Common Crow. Blue Jay 25: 121.

Short, L. L., Jr., and R. C. Laybourne. 1967. An instance of 'white wing-barring'in the Common crow. Wilson Bull. 79: 113-114.

Skagen, S. K., R. L. Knight, and G. H. Orians. 1991. Human disturbance of an avian scavenging guild. Ecol Appl 1: 215-225.

Southern, W. E. 1970. Marsh Hawk chases crows mobbing owl. Wilson Bull. 82: 98-99.

Stouffer, P. C., and D. F. Caccamise. 1991. Capturing American Crows using alpha-chloralose. J. Field Ornithol 62: 450-453.

Stouffer, P. C., and D. F. Caccamise. 1991. Roosting and diurnal movements of radio-tagged American Crows. Wilson Bull. 103: 387-400.

Sugden, L. G., and G. W. Beyersbergen. 1986. Effect of density and concealment on American crow predation of simulated duck nests. J Wildl Manage 50: 9-14.

Sugden, L. G. 1987. Effect of disruptive background on predation of artificial nests by American crows. Prairie Nat 19: 149-152.

Sugden, L. G., and G. W. Beyersbergen. 1987. Effect of nesting cover density on American crow predation of simulated duck nests. J Wildl Manage 51: 481-485.

Sullivan, B. D. 1992. Long-eared owls usurp newly constructed American crow nests. J Raptor Res 26: 97-98.

Sullivan, B. D. 1988. Egg predation, home range, and foraging habitat of American Crows in a waterfowl breeding area. M.S., Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.

Sullivan, B. D., and J. J. Dinsmore. 1990. Factors affecting egg predation by American Crows . J Wildl Manage 54: 433-437.

Sullivan, B. D., and J. J. Dinsmore. 1992. Home range and foraging habitat of American crows Corvus brachyrhynchos in a waterfowl breeding area in Manitoba. Can Field Nat 106: 181-184.

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